Mediating Role of Interaction Orientation on the Relationship between Strategic Orientation and Small Medium Enterprises Performance in North-East Nigeria

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Ibrahim Aliyu

  •   Prof. Abubakar Yusuf Duste

  •   Dr. Mangai Josiah Mallo

  •   Dr. Umar Usman

Abstract

This study was designed to find out the mediating role of interaction orientation in the relationship between strategic orientation and Small Medium (SMEs) performance in northeast Nigeria. Data was collected from a sample of 326 SME owner-managers in northeast Nigeria using questionnaire. The analysis was done with inferential statistics on Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) on Smart-PLS 3. The results revealed that interaction orientation mediates the relationship between each of entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation learning orientation, and technology orientation with SMEs’ performance. Without taking proper training and orientation measures for SME owner-managers on the application of entrepreneurial, market orientation, and technology jointly with interaction orientation in Nigeria, the country will continue to suffer from poor SMEs’ performance. It is recommended that special consideration should be given to interaction orientation because of its mediation effect on market orientation and SMEs performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Orientation, Market Orientation, Learning Orientation, Technology Orientation, Interaction Orientation, Strategic Orientation and SMEs Performance.

References

Abdalla, A. M. A. & Mohamed, S, M. A. (2020). The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on firms’ performance of the telecommunication sector in Sudan. African Journal of Business Management, 14(5), 151-158.

Abiodun, T. S. & Kida, M. I. (2016). The impact of strategic learning orientation, entrepreneurial orientation and reconfiguring capabilities on export performance of SMEs in Nigeria. International Journal of Management Science and Business Administration, 2(3), 33-42.

AbuBakar, H., Mahmood, R. & Ismail, N. H. N. (2015). Fostering small and medium enterprises through entrepreneurial orientation and strategic improvisation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 481-487.

Adedayo, I. (2018). FG pledges enabling policies for SMEs to thrive. This Day News Paper.

Affendy, A.H., Abdul-Talib, A. & Farid M.S. (2015). Entrepreneurial orientation effects on market orientation and smes business performance–A SEM approach. Society of Interdisciplinary Business Research, 4(3) 259-261.

Ahmad, A., Supian, K., Muhammad Yunus, I. F., Tanius, E., & Ishak, B. (2019). Entrepreneurial Orientation and Hospitality Performance: The Mediating Effect of Market Orientation. International Journal of Accounting, Finance and Business (IJAFB), 4(19), 61-71.

Ahmad, N., Lazim, H. M., Shamsuddin, A., Wahab, E & Seman, N. A. A. (2019). The Relationship between Technological Capability and Manufacturing Performance. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 8(2), 930-938.

Akpa, V. O., Falade, A. F. (2020). Effect of Strategic Orientation on the Profitability of Insurance Companies in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 22(7), 59-67.

Al-Ansari, Y., Altalib, M. & Sardoh, M. (2013). Technology orientation, innovation and business performance: A study of Dubai SMEs. The International Technology Management Review, 3(1), 1-11.

Alhakimi, W. & Mahmoud, M. (2020). The impact of market orientation on innovativeness: evidence from Yemeni SMEs. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, e-ISSN: 2398-7812

Aliyu, I. Male, I. G., Adamu, R. A. and Aminu, A. (2022). Effect of entrepreneurial orientation on performance of small medium enterprises in Nigeria." IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 24(10), 53-64. 10.9790/487X-2410035364

Alizadeh, A., Alipour, H. & Hasanzadeh, M. (2013). Market orientation and business performance among SMEs based in Ardabil industrial City-Iran. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 2(7), 38-47.

Amin, M. (2015). The effect of entrepreneurship orientation and learning orientation on SMEs’ performance: an SEM-PLS approach. International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 8(3), 215–230.

Aminu, I. M. & Shariff, M. N. M. (2015). Influence of Strategic Orientation on SMEs Access to Finance in Nigeria: Asian Social Science: 11(4), 298-309.

Aminu, I. M. & Shariff, M. N. M. (2015). The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, learning orientation, technology orientation and SMEs performance in Nigeria, 108-116.

Aminu, S. A. (2016). Market orientation and small and medium enterprises performance in Nigeria: A review. Ilorin Journal of Marketing, 3(1), 122-132.

Apolot, S. (2012). Organizational learning, innovation and small and medium enterprise (SME) performance in Uganda. MSc dissertation, Makerere University.

Arifin, Z. & Dewi, R. S. (2020). Entrepreneurial orientation, adaptive capability, and innovation. Talent Development and Excellence, 12(1), 3065 – 3080.

Asad, M. Chethiyar, S. D. M. Ali, A. (2020). Total Quality Management, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Market Orientation: Moderating Effect of Environment on Performance of SMEs. Paradigms, 14(1), 102-108.

Asemokha, A, Musona, J. Torkkeli, L. & Saarenketo, S (2019). Business model innovation and entrepreneurial orientation relationships in SMEs: Implications for international performance. Journal of International Entrepreneurshiphttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-019-00254-3

Asomaning, R. & Abdulai, A. (2015). An Empirical Evidence of the Market Orientation–Market Performance Relationship in Ghanaian Small Businesses. Educational Research International, 4(2), 69-86.

Avlonitis, G. J., & Gounaris, S. P. (1999). Marketing orientation and its determinants: an empirical analysis. European Journal of Marketing, 33(12), 1003 –1037.

Ayanda, A. M., & Laraba, A. S. (2011). Small and sedium scale enterprises as a survival strategy for employment generation in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(1), 200-207.

Ayinla A. A. (2009). Assessing the Relationship between the Perceived Business Environment and Firm’s Entrepreneurial Orientation. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 2(1), 50-56.

Bamfoa, B. A. & Kraa, J. J. (2019). Market orientation and performance of small and medium enterprises in Ghana: the mediating role of innovation, Cogent Business & Management, 3-23.

Barney, J. B. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1) 99-120.

Barney, J. B. 2001. Is the resource-based view a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes. Academy of Management Review, 26: 41-54.

Barney, J. B. David J. K.& Mike W. (2011). The future of resource-based theory: Revitalization or decline? Academy of Management Review, 37(5), 1299-1315.

Barney, J. B. & Griffin, R.G. (1992). The management of organizations: Strategy, structure, behavior. Houghton Mifflin.

Boohene R. (2018). Entrepreneurial orientation, strategic orientation and performance of small family firms in the Kumasi metropolis: Academy of Entrepreneurship Education 24(2), 1-16.

Boso, N., Oghazi, P, Cadogan, J. W. & Story, V. M. (2016). Entrepreneurial and market-oriented activities, financial capital, environment turbulence, and export performance in an emerging economy. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 26(1), 1-24.

Buowari, P. E. (2015). Factors Required For Small Business Sustainability in Nigeria: Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies, Walden University.

Chenuos, N. K. & Maru, C. L. (2015). Learning orientation and innovativeness of small and micro enterprises. International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 3(5), 1-10.

Darabi, Y., Caruana, A. & Zegordi, S. H. (2004). The impact of market orientation on business performance and website adoption: A study among Iranian SMEs. IADIS International Journal, 5(2), 26-39.

Darmanto, Runing, H. S., Harsono, M., & Haryono, T. (2014). The relationship between strategy orientation and marketing performance: The role of organizational change capability. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(1), 221-229.

Daryani, M. A. & Karimi, A. (2017). Effect of corporate entrepreneurship on firm performance in Iranian ASMEs: The mediation role of knowledge creation and learning orientation. J. Agr. Sci. Tech.19, 261-277.

Deng, S. & Dart, J. (1994). The market orientation of chinese enterprises during a time of transation. European Journal of Marketing, 33(6), 631 – 654.

Dewantia, I. S., AlHabsjib, A., Arifinc, Z. & Mawardi, M. K. (2020). The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Improving Small Medium Enterprise (SME) Performance. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13(10), 445-463.

Diba, A. G. & Omwenga, J. Q. (2019). Influence of strategic orientation on firm performance of retail supermarkets in Kenya. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 3(5), 296-315.

Dionysus, R. & Arifin, A Z. (2020). Strategic Orientation on Performance: The Resource Based View Theory Approach. Jurnal Akuntansi, XXIV(01), 136-153.

Dongzhe, Z. (2020). Research on Strategic Orientation of Liaoning Small and Medium Enterprises. 5th International Conference on Economics Development, Business & Management (EDBM 2020).

Duru, I. U., Ehidiamhen, P. O. & Chijioke, A. N. J. (2018). Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria: Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting 6(1), 1-21.

Duygu, S. H. (2019). Technology Orientation: A Reassessment and a Future Research Agenda. Institute of Business Administration-Management Journal (86), 25-55.

Duwalang, I. W. R. P. & Santika, I. W. (2020). The role of product innovation mediates the effect of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on marketing performance. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research 4(8), 136-145.

Ehigiamusoe, G. (24/10/2018). LAPO identifies reasons for failure of SMEs in Nigeria. Nigerian Observer News Paper.

Espino-Rodríguez, T. F. & Ramírez-Fierro, J. C. (2018). Types and hotel outsourcing and its impact on organizational performance. An application in a tourism destination: Sustainability, 1-17.

Etemad, H. (2019). Revisiting interactions of entrepreneurial, marketing, and other orientations with internationalization strategies. Journal of International Entrepreneurship 17, 1–18.

Grawe, S. J., Chen, H. & Daugherty, P. J. (2009). The relationship between strategic orientation, service innovation, and performance,39(4), 282-300.

Gupta, R. (2019). Entrepreneurship Orientation (EO), Resources, and Small Firm Growth: Evidence from India. International, Journal of Business and Economics, 18(1), 41-58.

Habib, M. A., Bao, Y., Nabi, N., Dula, M., Asha, A. A. & Islam, M. (2021). Impact of Strategic Orientations on the Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management Practices and Sustainable Firm Performance. Sustainability, 13, 1-21.

Hair, J.F., Wolfinbarger, M.F., and Ortinall, D.J. (2008) Essential of Marketing Research. Boston: McGraw, Hill/Irwin.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th edition), Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM), Sage Publications Inc. London.

Haryanto, A. T. Haryono, T., Sawitri, H. S. R. (2017). Market orientation, learning orientation and small medium enterprises performance: The mediating role of innovation. International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(1), 484-491.

Heng, L. & Afifah, N. (2020). Entrepreneurial orientation for enhancement of marketing performance. International Review of Management and Marketing, 10(3), 46-53.

Herath, H. M. A. & Mahmood, R. (2013). Strategic Orientation Based Research Model of SME Performance for Developing Countries: Rev. Integr. Bus. Econ. Res., 2(1), 430-40.

Herath, H. M. A. & Mahmood, R. (2014). Strategic orientations and sme performance: Moderating effect of absorptive capacity of the firm: Asian Social Science 10(13), 95-106.

Hosseini, M., Dadfar, H. & Brege, S. (2014). The role of entrepreneurial orientation on corporate performance: A moderated mediation model. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236833122.

Hussain, J., Ismail, K. & Akhtar, S. (2015). Market orientation and organizational performance: A case of Pakistani SMEs. Social and Basic Science Research Review 3(2), 125-136.

Hussain, J., Rahman, W. & Shah, F.A. (2016). Market Orientation and Performance: The Interaction Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 10(2), 388-403.

Hussain, J., Shah, F. A., Rahman, W. & Khan, H. (2018). Learning orientation and performance: The interaction effect of entrepreneurial orientation. Pakistan Business Review, 960-977.

Hussain, J., Khan, A. A. & khan, M. I. (2019). The effect of strategic orientations on organizational performance of SMEs: empirical evidence from pakistan. Journal on Innovation and Sustainability, 10(3), 48-58.

Ibrahim, M. I. Keat, O. Y. and Abd Rani, S. H., (2017). Entrepreneurial orientation, technology orientation and small and medium enterprises performance in Nigeria: Role of government support policies, Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 3(1), 75-84.

Ibrahima N. A. & Mas’ud, A. (2016). Moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial skills, environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention: A PLS approach: Management Science Letters 6, 225–236.

Ihua, U. B. (2009). SMEs key failure-factors: A comparison between the United Kingdom and Nigeria. Journal of Social Science, 18(3), 199-207.

Ismail, Narsa, I. M. & Basuki, (2019). The effect of market orientation, innovation, organizational learning and entrepreneurship on firm performance. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 22(3), 1-13.

Jabeen, R., Alekam, J. M. E., Aldaoud, K. A. M., Mat, N. K. N., Zureigat, B. N. I., Nahi, A. K., Junaidi, A. M. F. & Hassan, (2013). Antecedents of firm’s performance. empirical evidence from Yemeni SMEs. American Journal of Economics, 3(1), 18-22.

Jassmy, B. A. K. & Bhaya, Z. M. A. (2016). Strategic orientation and effects on organizational performance: analytical study in real estate banks in Al–Dewaniya province. Proceedings of the 10TH International Management Conference "Challenges of Modern Management", November 3rd-4th, 2016, Bucharest, Romania.

Joseph, K. (2009). Leasing competence, lease structure and perceived performance of SMEs in Uganda. MSc, Makerere University, Uganda

Karami, A. (2012). Strategy Formulation in Entrepreneurial Firms. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Karami, M., & Tang, J. (2019). Entrepreneurial orientation and SME international performance: The mediating role of networking capability and experiential learning. International Small Business Journal, 37(2), 105–124.

Kasim, A. & Altinay, L. (2016). How do technology orientation, organizational learning, market conditions, and firm growth connect? A preliminary analysis on small and medium size hotels in peninsular Malaysia. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(7), 121-126.

Keskin, H. (2006). Market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation capabilities in SMEs: An extended model. European Journal of Innovation Management, 9(4), 396-417.

Khalid, N., Salykova, L. & Capar, N. (2020). The contribution of environmental strategies, entrepreneurial innovation and entrepreneurial orientation in enhancing firm environmental performance and energy efficiency. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(3), 282-288.

Kittikunchotiwut, P. (2020). The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, organizational learning capability, and firm innovation. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Thonburi University, 14(3), 10-19.

Kraa, J. J. (2016). Effect of Market Orientation on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises; Mediating Role of Innovation. M.Phil thesis Submitted to Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana.

Kraaijenbrink, J., Spender, J. C. & Groen, A. (2009). The resource-based view: A review and assessment of its critiques: Munich Personal RePEc Archive,21442, Retrieved from: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/21442/.

Lechner, C. & Gudmundsson, S. V. (2014). Entrepreneurial orientation, firm strategy and small firm performance: International Small Business Journal, 32(1), 36–60.

Lestari, E. R., Ardianti, F. L. & Rachmawati, L. (2018). Firm performance model in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) based on learning orientation and innovation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science

Mahmood, R., & Hanafi, N. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance of women-owned small and medium enterprises in Malaysia: Competitive advantage as a mediator. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(1), 83-90.

Mahmoud, M. A., Blankson, C., Owusu-Frimpong, N., Nwankwo, S. & Trang, T. P. (2015). Market orientation, learning orientation and business performance: The mediating role of innovation. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(5), 623-648.

Mambula, C. (2002). Perceptions of SME growth constraints in Nigeria. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(1), 58-65.

Mamun, A. A. & Nasir, W. N. W. (2017). Effect of market and interaction orientations on innovation orientation and enterprise performance. Advanced Science Letters, 23(4), 2925-2928.

Mardiyono, A. (2018). The Effect of Market Orientation, Technology Orientation to Increase Marketing Performance on Confection Medium Small Business in Indonesia. Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 5(7), 562-569.

Memon, M. A., Cheah, J. H., Ramayah, T., Ting, H. & Chuahe, F. (2018). Mediation analysis issues and recommendations. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling, 2(1), i-ix.

Mertens, D. M. (2010). Divergence and mixed methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4(1) 3–5

Mohammed, S., AbuTalib, N. B. & AbduKohar, U. H. (2020). Small and medium enterprises in the emerging economies: does entrepreneurial orientation matters? International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(5), 1065-1074.

Mokhtar, S. S. M. Yusoff, R. Z. & Ahmad, A. (2014). Key elements of market orientation on malaysian SMEs performance. International Journal of Business and Society, 15(1), 49-64.

Morgan, R.E., & Strong, C.A. (2003). Business performance and types of strategic orientation. Journal of Business Research, 56(3), 163-176.

Mukhtar, M. A., Baloch, N. A. & Khattak, S. R. (2019). Dynamic capability & firm performance: Mediating role of learning orientation, organizational culture & corporate entrepreneurship: A case study of SMEs of Pakistan.

Naala, M. N. I., Nordin, N. & Omar, W. A. W (2017). Does technology orientation really matter for firm performance in north-western Nigeria? Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 5(11), 48-56.

Nasir, W. M. (2013). The Relationship between Strategic Orientation and Firm Performance: Evidence from Small and Medium Enterprises in Malaysia: A PhD Thesis Submitted to Sydney University, Australia.

National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2019). Labor Force Statistics - Volume 2: Unemployment and Underemployment by State NBS (2017). Economic Outlook

Neneh, B. N. (2011). The Impact of Entrepreneurial Characteristics And Business Practices on The Long Term Survival of Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs): MSc Dissertation, University of Free State, South Africa.

Neneh, B. N. (2016). Market orientation and performance: the contingency role of external environment. Environmental Economics, 7(2), 130-137.

Nnodim, O. (2012). Why small businesses fail, The Punch Newspaper.

Nur, N. Surachman, Salim, U. & Djumahir, (2014). Entrepreneurship orientation, market orientation, business strategy, management capabilities on business performance; study at small and medium enterprise printing in Kendari: International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(12), ISSN: 2319 – 8028.

Nwankwo, F., Ewuim, N., & Asoya, N. P. (2012). Role of cooperatives in small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) development in Nigeria: Challenges and the way forward. African Research Review, 6(4), 140-156.

Odondo, M. O., Okibo W. B. & Odhiambo, R. (2017). Effect of technology orientation on performance of micro, small and medium-scale agro-food processing enterprises in Nairobi County, Kenya. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 3(1), 483-494.

Ogbari, M. E., Ibidunni, A. S., Ogunnaike, O. O., Olokundun, M. A. & Amaihian, A. B. (2018). A comparative analysis of small business strategic orientation: Implications for performance: Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 17(1), 1-15.

Ojo, M. (9/12/2017). The challenges of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nation News Paper.

Olugbenga, A. A. (2012). Policy support and performance of small and medium scale enterprises in South-West Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(9), 10-18.

Osamwonyi, I. O., & Tafamel, A. E. (2010). Options for sustaining small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria: Emphasis on Edo State. African Research Review, 4(3).

Peng, L., Li, Y., Essen, M. V. & Peng, M. W. (2019). Institutions, resources, and strategic orientations: A meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s1049.

Penga, D. X. & Lai, F. (2012). Using partial least squares in operations management research: A practical guideline and summary of past research. Journal of Operations Management, 30(2012) 467–480.

Pesämaa, O., Shoham, A., Khan, M. L. & Muhammad, I. J. (2015) The impact of social networking and learning orientation on performance. Journal of Global Marketing, 28(2), 113-131.

Pett, T. L. & Wolff, J. A. (2010). SME performance: The role of learning orientation and its relationship to market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 20(1), 1-33.

Pett, T. L. & Wolff, J. A. (2016). Entrepreneurial orientation and learning in high and low-performing SMEs. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 26(2), 72-86.

Pett, T. L., Francis, J., & Wolff, J. A. (2019). The interplay of strategic orientations and their influence on SME performance. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 29(3), 46-59.

Phorncharoen, I. (2020). Influence of market orientation, learning orientation, and innovativeness on operational performance of real estate business. International Journal of Engineering Business Management 12: 1–11.

Putri, C. F., Nugroho, I. & Purnomo, D. (2019). Performance measurement of SMEs of Malang Batik as a result of local wisdom with balanced scorecard. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 505 012022. doi:10.1088/1757-899X/505/1/012022.

Ramani, G. & Kumar, V. (2008). Interaction Orientation and Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing, 72(1), 27-45.

Real, J. C., Roldán, J. L. & Leal, A. (2012). From entrepreneurial orientation and learning orientation to business performance: Analysing the mediating role of organizational learning and the moderating effects of organizational size. British Journal of Management, 1-23.

Retnawati, B. B. & Retnaningsih, C. H. (2019). Role of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation on competitive advantage through marketing performance: The study at marine-based food processing industry in Central Java. 3rd Asia Pacific International Conference of Management and Business Science (AICMBS 2019).

Reulink, R. B. J. (2012). Strategic Orientation and Innovation Performance at Dutch Manufacturing SME’s: The overrated role of Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation: A PhD Thesis submitted to University of Twente, Netheland.

Revilla, M. A., Saris, W. E. & Krosnick, J. A. (2013). Choosing the Number of Categories in Agree–Disagree Scales: Sociological Methods & Research, SAGE Journals, ISSN: 1552-8294.

Rezazadeh, B., Karami, H. & Karami, A. (2016). Technology orientation, dynamic capabilities and SMEs performance. Strategic Management Quarterly, 4(1), 41-60.

Rizan, M., Balfas, F. Purwohedi, U. (2019). The influence of strategic orientation, organizational innovation capabilities and strategic planning on the performance of technology-based firms. Academy of Strategic Management Journal 18(3), 1-11.

Sajjad, W., Sajjad, A & Asif, M. (2020). Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Access to Finance and Strategic Flexibility on SMEs Performance. Journal of Management and Research, 7(1), 1-23.

Salavou H. (2005). Do Customer and Technology Orientations Influence Product Innovativeness in SMEs? Some New Evidence from Greece. Journal of Marketing Management, 21, 307-338.

Salavou, H., Baltas, G. & Lioukas, S. (2004). Organisational innovation in SMEs: The important of strategic orientation and competitive structure. European Journal of Marketing, 38(9-10), 1091-1112.

Sarker, S. & Palit, M. (2015). Strategic orientation and performance of small and medium enterprises in Bangladesh: Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24(4), 572- 586.

Sawaeana, F. A. A. & Alib, K. A. M. (2020). The impact of entrepreneurial leadership and learning orientation on organizational performance of SMEs: The mediating role of innovation capacity. Management Science Letters, 10, 369–380.

Schachtebeck, C., Groenewald, D. & Nieuwenhuizen, C. (2019). Intrapreneurial orientation in small and medium-sized enterprises: An exploration at the employee level. Independent Research Journal in the Management Sciences, 19(2), 1-13.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Shehu, A. M. & Mahmood, R. (2014). The relationship between market orientation and business performance of Nigerian SMEs: The role of organizational culture. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(9), 159-168.

Shehu, A. M., & Mahmood, R. (2014). Market orientation, knowledge management and entrepreneurial orientation as predictors of SME performance: Data screening and preliminary analysis. Information and Knowledge Management 4(7), 159-168.

Shehu, A. M., & Mahmood, R. (2015). The moderating role of business environment in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business performance among Nigerian SMEs. Jurnal Pengurusan 43(2015), 119-128.

Shehu, A. M., Aminu, I., Kamariah, N., Mat, N., & Nasiru, A. (2013). The mediating effect between some determinants of SME performance in Nigeria. Journal of Management, 3(4), 237-242.

Sheng, M.L., & Chien, I. (2016). Rethinking organizational learning orientation on radical and incremental innovation in high-tech firms. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2302–2308.

SMEDAN & NBS (2010). National micro, small and medium enterprises collaborative survey.

SMEDAN & NBS (2013). National micro, small and medium enterprises collaborative survey.

SMEDAN & NBS (2017). National Survey of Micro Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

Sukato, N. (2014). The implementation of market orientation and innovation in SMEs. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(5) 614-625.

Syahdana, R., Djaelania, Y. & Mahdia, S. A. (2020). Strategic orientation and the performance of SMEs in Indonesia: The mediating role of access to finance. Management Science Letters, 10, 1151–1160.

Thabrani, G., Susanto, P. & Abdullah, N. L. (2018). The essence of entrepreneurial orientation types in SMEs sector: utilizing the analytic hierarchy process: Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 64, 553-563.

Tywoniak, S. (2007). Making sense of the resource-based view? In Proceedings Academy of Management, Philadelphia, USA. http://eprints.qut.edu.au.

Udoma, U. U. (5/9/2018). NBS Q2 2018 GDP report: Key lessons for the ERGP. The Punch News Paper.

Venter, A. (2014). An Analysis of the Influence of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Business Success in Selected Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Being an MBA Dissertation Submitted to North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm: Strategic Management Journal, 5(2) 171-180.

Wernerfelt, B. (2011). The use of resources in resource acquisition: Journal of Management, Special Issue, 1369-1373.

Widokarti, J. R, & Ginting, G. (2020). Strengthening public value through reinforcing entrepreneurial orientation and organization: preliminary step toward entrepreneurial universities. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 143, 176-180.

Yacob, S., Eridaa, A. M. & Alamsyah, D. P. (2021). A model for the business performance of micro, small and medium enterprises: Perspective of social commerce and the uniqueness of resource capability in Indonesia. Management Science Letters 11, 101–110.

Yarahmadi, H., Karami, A. & Siwan, M. (2015). Strategic marketing management and firm performance. Lambert Academic publishing.

Yasa, P. N. S., Sitiari, N. W. & Kreswanto, I. (2020). The effect of entrepreneurship orientation and organizational culture on funding decisions and organizational performance on SPA product SMEs in Bali Province. Talent Development & Excellence, 12(1), 3426 - 3447.

Zaato, S. G., Ismail, G., Uthamaputhran, S. & Owusu-Ansah, W (2020). The impact of entrepreneurial orientation on smes performance in Ghana: The role of social capital and government support policies. JMK, 22(2), 99–114.

Zainab, A. F., Bolarinwa, K. I., Zekeri, A. & Oladoke, O. S. (2020). Entrepreneurial orientation and the performance of womenowned enterprises in Kwara State, Nigeria. Ilorin Journal of Human Resource Management, 4(1), 274-285.

Zhai, Y., Sun, W., Tsai, S., Wang, Z. Zhao, Y. & Chen, Q. (2018). An Empirical study on entrepreneurial orientation, absorptive capacity, and SMEs’ innovation performance: A sustainable perspective. Sustainability, 10(314), 1-14.

Zulfikar, R. (2020). The role of market orientation and innovation capability to create superior value. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 112, 75-80.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Aliyu, I., Duste, P. A. Y., Mallo, D. M. J., & Usman, D. U. (2022). Mediating Role of Interaction Orientation on the Relationship between Strategic Orientation and Small Medium Enterprises Performance in North-East Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 7(6), 93–101. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2022.7.6.1706