##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Lebbaeus Asamani

Abstract

Protection of workers against harm and sicknesses is a fundamental human right, irrespective of where the individual works. Most workplace safety and health research concentrate on the industrial and formal or corporate work settings, with very little attention given to the informal sector, especially informal agriculture. The present paper investigated safety behaviour as a mediating variable in the relationship between safety culture and safety performance of rice farm worker. The study was a cross-sectional survey, involving 469 respondents (347 males and 122 females), with an average age of 45.96 years and 13.65 years of rice farming experience. The data was analysed with the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. The paper found safety culture to be a strong predictor of safety behaviour, and a moderate predictor of safety performance. Also, safety behaviour had a competitive partial mediating effect on the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Contrary to expectation, safety behaviour had a positive relationship with safety performance, and safety culture was a better predictor of safety performance than safety behaviour. The results were discussed in light of the socio-cultural sub-system model and recommendation for research, practice and policy proffered.
 

Keywords: Safety culture of farm workers, safety performance in agriculture, promotion of safety behaviour, safety compliance, safety participation

References

J. L. Agnew, and A.C. Daniels, “Safe by accident? Take the luck out of safety: Leadership practices that build a sustainable safety culture,” Atlanta, GA: Performance Management Publications, 2010.

L. Alfers, “Occupational Health and Safety for Market and Street Traders in Accra and Takoradi, Ghana”. 2009, Retrieved on March 9, 2015 from www.wiego.org.

A. K. Apekey, “Traditional values and management in Ghana” (PhD thesis), University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, 2001.

A. Arboleda, P. C. Morrow, M. R. Crum, I. Shelley, and C. Mack, “Management practices as antecedents of safety culture within the trucking industry: Similarities and differences by hierarchical level,” Journal of Safety Research, vol. 34, pp. 189–197, 2003.

J. Y. Avotri, and V. Walters, “You just look at our work and see if you have any freedom on earth: Ghanaian women's accounts of their work and their health,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1123-1133, 1999.

J. Barling, C. Loughlin, and E. K. Kelloway, “Development and test of a model linking safety‐specific transformational leadership and occupational safety,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 488–96, 2002.

D. Beaton, C. Bombardier, F. Guillemin and M.B. Marcos Bosi Ferraz, “Recommendations for the cross-cultural adaptation of the DASH and Quick DASH outcome Measures,” Spine: Institute for Work & Health, 2007.

D. Beaton, C. Bombardier, F. Guillemin and M.B. Ferraz, “Recommendations for the cross-cultural adaptation of health status measures,” New York: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, vol. 12, pp. 1-9, 2002.

J. M. Beus, S.C. Payne, M.E. Bergman and W. Arthur Jr,”Safety climate and injuries: an examination of theoretical and empirical relationships,” Journal of applied psychology, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 713, 2010.

W.C. Borman and S.J. Motowidlo, “Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance,” In N. Schmitt and W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 71-98, 1993.

M. Bosompem and E. Mensah, “Occupational hazards among cocoa farmers in the Birim South District in the Eastern Region of Ghana,” ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, vol. 7, no.12, pp. 1055- 1061, 2012.

A. W. Bronkhorst, “The cocktail-party problem revisited: Early processing and selection of multi-talker speech,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, vol. 77, no.5, pp. 1465-1487, 2015.

M. J. Burke, R.O Salvador, K. Smith-Crowe, S. Chan-Serafin, A. Smith, A. and S. Sonesh, “The dread factor: How hazards and safety training influence learning and performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, no.1, pp.46–70, 2011.

M.S. Christian, J.C. Bradley, J.C. Wallace and M.J. Burke, “Workplace safety: A meta-analysis of the roles of person and situation factors,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 94, pp.1103 – 1127, 2009.

S. Clarke, “Contrasting perceptual, attitudinal and dispositional approaches to accident involvement in the workplace,” Safety Science, vol. 44, pp.537–550, 2006.

S. Clarke, “Safety leadership: A meta-analytic review of transformational and transactional leadership styles as antecedents of safety behaviours,” Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, vol. 86, no.1, pp.22-49, 2013.

S. Clarke and K. Ward, “The role of leader influence tactics and safety climate in engaging employees' safety participation”, Risk Analysis, vol 26, no 5, pp. 1175-1185, 2006.

J. Cohen, “Statistical power analysis for the Behavioral Sciences,” (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1988.

K. S. Cole, S. M. Stevens-Adams, and C. A. Wenner, “A Literature Review of Safety Culture,” Sandia report, 2013, Retrieved on July 6, 2017 from www.osti.gove/bridge.

M. Curcuruto, S. M. Conchie, M. G. Mariani, and F.S. Violante, “The role of prosocial and proactive safety behaviors in predicting safety performance,” Safety Science, vol. 80, pp. 317–323, 2015.

M. Curcuruto, D. Guglielmi, and M. G. Mariani, “Organizational citizenship for safety: Psycho-social processes of mediation,” Psicologia sociale, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 229-248, 2013.

S. Didla, K. Mearns, and R. Flin, “Safety citizenship behaviour: proactive approach to risk management,” Journal of Risk Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 475 — 483, 2009.

M. F. Dollard, and S. Kang, “Psychosocial safety climate measure,” Adelaide: Work and Stress Research Group, University of South Australia, 2007.

B. Effah, K. Antwi, G. Adu, and E. Boampong, “The safety culture of artisans at the Sokoban wood village enclave, Ghana,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 121-128, 2013.

J. A. Erickson, “Corporate culture: The key to safety performance,” Occupational Hazards, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 45–50, 2000.

G. D. Garson, “Partial least squares (PLS-SEM)” (2016 ed.). Asheboro, USA: Statistical Publishing Associates, 2016, Retrieved 17 February, 2016 from www.statisticalassociates.com.

T. N. Garavan, and F. O’Brien, “An investigation into the relationship between safety climate and safety behaviors in Irish organizations,” Irish Journal of Management, vol. 22, pp. 141–170, 2001.

E. S. Geller, Actively caring for occupational safety: Extending the performance management paradigm. In C. M. Johnson & W. K. Redmon & T. C. Mawhinney (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Performance: Behavior Analysis and Management: pp. 303-326. Binghamton, New York Haworth Press Inc, 2001.

Ghana Statistical Service. “2010 Population and housing census: Summary report of final results”. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service, 2012.

M. A. Griffin, and A. Neal, “Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 347-358, 2000.

F. W. Guldenmund, “The nature of safety culture: A review of theory and research,” Safety Science, vol. 34, no. 1–3), pp. 215–257, 2000.

N. U. Hadi, N. Abdullah, and I. Sentosa, “Making sense of mediating analysis: A marketing perspective,” Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 62, 2016.

J. Hall, Cross-Sectional Survey Design. In: “Encyclopaedia of Survey Research Methods”, Sage Publications, Inc., 2011 pp. 173. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963947.

G.B. Hall, M. F. Dollard, and J. Coward, “Psychosocial Safety Climate: Development of the PSC-12,” International Journal of Stress Management, vol.17, no. 4, pp. 353–383, 2010.

D. Hay, “Workplace Safety culture assessment tool: An overview,” (n.d), Retrieved February 19, 2015 from www.dmhay.co.nz.

J. F. Hair, J. F., G. T. M. Jr., Hult, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt, M. “A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2014.

J. Heintz, “Employment, Poverty, and Gender in Ghana,” Working Paper Series, No 92. University of Massachusetts Amherst: Political Economy Research Institute, 2005.

R. L. Helmreich, and A. R. Merritt, “Culture at work in aviation and medicine: National, organizational and professional influences,” Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001.

J. Henseler, C. M. Ringle, M. Sarstedt, “Testing measurement invariance of composites using partial least squares,” International Marketing Review, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 405-431, 2016.

J. Henseler, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt, “Using partial least squares path modelling in advertising research: Basic concepts and recent issues,” Handbook of research on international advertising, 252, 2012.

V. B. Hinsz, G. S. Nickell, and E. S. Park, (2007). “The role of work habits in the motivation of food safety behaviours,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 105, 2007.

A. Hill, R. Darko, J. Seffah, R. Adanu, J. Anarfi, and R. Duda, Health of urban Ghanaian women as identified by the Women's Health Study of Accra. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, vol. 99, pp. 150-156, 2007.

M. A. Idris, M. F. Dollard, J. Coward, and C. Dormann, “Psychosocial safety climate: Conceptual distinctiveness and effect on job demands and worker psychological health,” Safety Science, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 19-28, 2012.

International Labour Office. “Global Employment Trends for Youth. Special issue on the impact of global economic crises on the youth,” Geneva: Author, 2010.

U. F. F. Ismail, M. Asumeng, and K. Nyarko, “The impact of safety climate on safety performance in a gold mining company in Ghana” International Journal of Management Excellence, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 556-566, 2015.

L. Jiang, G. Yu, Y. Li, F. & Li, “Perceived colleagues’ safety knowledge / behaviour and safety performance: Safety climate as a moderator in a multilevel study,”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42, pp. 1468 – 1476, 2010.

F. Kiani, H. Samavatyan, S. Pourabdian, and E. Jafari, “Predictive power of incidents reporting rate and its dimensions by job stress among workers’ Isfahan Steel Company”, Iranian journal of public health, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 105, 2011

A. E. Kwankye, “Worker Characteristics and Compliance to Occupational Health and Safety. A Study of Naja David Wood Industry Limited in Kumasi Metropolis, 2012.

E. A. Kwankye, “Worker Characteristics and Compliance to Occupational Health and Safety: A Study of Naja David Wood Industry Limited in Kumasi Metropolis” (Doctoral dissertation). Kumasi, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 2012

A. D. Little, “Safety culture, safety behaviour and safety performance in Railway companies,” 9th World Congress Rail Research, May 22 – 26, 2011.

C. S. Lu, and C. S. Yang, “Safety climate and safety behaviour in the passenger ferry Context”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 43, pp. 329 – 341, 2011.

N. Luhmann, The world society as a social system. “International Journal of General Systems,” vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 131-138, 1982.

M. G. Marmot, and R. G. Wilkinson, “Social determinants of health,” (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

D. E. Maurino, J. Reason, N. Johnston, and R. B. Lee, “Beyond aviation human factors safety in high technology systems,” Aldershot, UK: Avebury Aviation, 1995.

B. McKinnon, “Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues,” (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004

M. McNeill, and D. O’Neill, “Occupational disorders in Ghanaian subsistence farmers. In Proceedings of the annual conference of the Ergonomics Society,” Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human factors, Loughborough, UK (1-3), April, 1998.

K. Mearns, S.M. Whitaker and R. Flin, “Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments,” Safety Science, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 641–680, 2003.

S. J. Mitchual, M. Donkoh and F. Bih, ‘Awareness and willingness to utilize health and safety measures among woodworkers of a timber processing firm in Ghana,” Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, pp. 178-188, 2015.

V. Mock, C. Frangakis, N.E. Davidson, M.E. Ropka, M. Pickett, B. Poniatowski and G. Cohen, “Exercise manages fatigue during breast cancer treatment: A randomized controlled trial,” Psycho‐Oncology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 464-477, 2005.

I. Monney, D.A. Bismark, O.M. Isaac and R. A. Kuffour, “Practices among vehicle repair artisans in an urban area in Ghana,” Journal of Environment and Occupational Science, vol. 3 no. 3, pp. 147, 2014.

S. L. Morrow, G. Kenneth Koves and V. E. Barnes, “Exploring the relationship between safety culture and safety performance in U.S. nuclear power operations,” Safety Science, vol. 69, pp. 37–47, 2014. ·

S. Muilerman, “Occupational safety and health on Ghanaian cocoa farms,” Baseline report of sustainable tree crops programme, Accra, Ghana, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 2013.

M. R. Munteanu, “Safety attitudes in the Ontario construction,” [MS thesis], University of Toronto, Canada, 2005.

J. D. Nahrgang, F. P. Morgeson and D. A. Hofmann, “Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 96, pp.71, 2011.

A. Neal and M.A. Griffin, “A study of the lagged relationships among safety climate, safety motivation, safety behaviour, and accidents at the individual and group levels,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, pp. 946-953, 2006.

A. Neal and M. A. Griffin, “Safety climate and safety at work,” In: J. Barling and M. Frone, (Eds.), the Psychology of Workplace Safety, Washington DC, American Psychological Association, pp. 15–34, 2004.

A. Neal, M. A Griffin and P.M. Hart, “The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior,” Safety Science, vol. 34, pp.99-109, 2000.

K. J. Nielsen and K.L. Mikkelsen, “Predictive factors for self-reported occupational injuries at 3 manufacturing Plants,” Safety Science Monitor, vol.11, pp.1-9, 2007.

C. Nitzl, J.L. Roldan and G. Cepeda, “Mediation analysis in partial least squares path modelling” Industrial management & data systems, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1849 – 1864. DOI: 10.1108/IMDS-07-2015-0302, 2016.

R. Nobles and D. Schiff, “A story of miscarriage: law in the media,” Journal of Law and Society, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 221-244, 2004.

N. Pidgeon, “Safety culture: Transferring theory and evidence from the major hazards industries,” Paper presented at the Behavioural Research in Road Safety 10th Seminar, 2001.

K. J. Preacher and A. F. Hayes, “Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models,” Behavioural Research Methods, vol. 40, pp. 879-891, 2008.

K. J. Preacher and A. F. Hayes, “SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models,” Behaviour Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, vol. 36, pp. 717-731, doi:10.3758/BF03206553, 2004.

J. Reason, “Managing the risks of organizational accidents,” Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, 1997.

J. Reason, “Human error: Models and management,” British Medical Journal, vol.32, pp.768-770, 2000.

M. Rubin, A. Giacomini, R. Allen, R. Turner and B. Kelly, “Identifying safety culture and safety climate variables that predict reported risk-taking among Australian coal miners: An exploratory longitudinal study,” Safety Science, vol. 123, no.104564, pp.1-9, doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2019.104564, 2020.

A. Salleh, “Safety behaviour in the Malaysian petrochemical industry”, (PhD thesis), University Utara, Malaysia, 2010.

F. Scheuren, “What is a Survey?” American Statistical Association, 2004.

S. Silva, M. L. Lima and C. Baptista, “OSCI: An organisational and safety climate inventory,” Safety Science, vol. 42, pp. 205–220, 2004.

R. Singleton and B. C. Straits, “Approaches to social research,” New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

A. P. Smith and E. J. Wadsworth, “Safety culture, advice and performance,” Cardiff, Centre for Occupational and Health Psychology, Cardiff University, 2009.

D. Soper, (2016), “A-priori sample size calculator for multiple regressions,” 2016, Available: www.danielsoper.com.

B. G. Tabachnick and I.S. Fidell, “Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.), Boston: Pearson Education, 2013.

C. Taylor, “Sources of the self: The making of the modern identity,” Harvard University Press, 1989.

US Department of Labour, The Latino labour force at a glance, “US Bureau of Labour Statistics,” Current Population Survey: Author, 2012.

A. G. Vredenburgh, “Organizational safety: which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates?” Journal of safety Research, vol.33, no.2, pp. 259-276, 2002.

C. Williams, “Sky service: The demands of emotional labour in the airline industry,” Gender, Work & Organization, vol.10 no. 5, pp. 513-550, 2003.

A. Zacharatos, J. Barling, and R.D. Iverson, “High-performance work systems and occupational safety,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 90 no 1, pp.77-93, 2005.

D. Zohar, ‘Thirty years of safety climate research: Reflections and future directions,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42 no.5, pp.1517-1522, 2010.

D. Zohar, “The effects of leadership dimensions, safety climate, and assigned priorities on minor injuries in work groups,” Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol. 23, pp. 75–92, 2002.

D. Zohar, “A group-level model of safety climate: testing the effect of group climate on micro accidents in manufacturing jobs,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 587-596, 2000.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Asamani, L. (2020). Promote Safety Culture and Enhance Safety Performance through Safety Behaviour. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.405