•   Mira Pratiwi

  •   Sandra Dewi

  •   . Hasyim


The turnover rates among millennial employees have become serious issue for many industries including healthcare industry. The negative economically outcome due to high turnover rate can vary from direct and indirect, tangible and intangible cost to the organization.
The cause of high turnover rate has been explained in many literatures, which includes leadership as one of the factors. Many studies have been underlining the importance of leadership style in lowering the number of turnover. Albeit some of leadership style may be proven to be effective in certain organization, the shift of millennial characteristic pressed other scholars to analyze if current theories of leadership style may sufficient and fitting to millennial. Therefore, there has been a gap in the literature between leadership style and leadership traits.
The purpose of this research is to study the relation between effective leadership traits for managing millennial and its’ impact to lower millennial healthcare workers turnover intention. Teamwork is an important aspect in millennial setting; therefore, it is used as moderator to imply if teamwork may strengthen the relation between the two previous variables.
The study was held in a small-scale maternity hospital in Malang, Indonesia, with the population of 57 millennial employees. The results of this research effort may help to fill the gap in the literature about the relationship between leadership traits, teamwork, and employee’s turnover for millennial in the workplace; and will hopefully help the organization to understand better the millennial motives to stay, and to bridge understanding between employer and employees.

Keywords: Leadership Traits, Turnover Intention, Teamwork, Millennial Employees, Healthcare Industry


Zaheer, S., Ginsburg, L., Wong, H.J. (2019). Turnover Intention of Hospital Staff in Ontario, Canada: exploring the role of frontline supervisors, teamwork, and mindful organizing. Hum Resour Health 17, 66. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-019-0404-2.

Voon, M.L., Lo, M.C., Ayob, N.B. (2011), The Influence of Leadership Style on Employees’ Job Satisfaction In Public Sector Organization In Malaysia. International Journal of Business, Management and Social Sciences, 2(1), 24-32.

Phillips, K.E. (2019). Managing Millennials: The Ultimate Handbook for Productivity, Profitability, and Professionalism. New York: Routledge.

Griffeth, R.W., Hom, P.W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates Of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, And Research Implications For The Next Millenium. Journal of Management. 26(3): 463-488.

Bawdy, E., Tarek, A., & Bassiouny, M. (2014). Employee Engagement as A Mediator Between Transformational Leadership and Intention to Quit. Journal of Management, 12 (1).

Leiter, M.P., Price, S.L., & Spence Laschinger, H.K. (2010) Generational Differences in Distress, Attitudes and Incivility Among Nurses. Journal of Nursing Management 18, 970–980.

Arsenault, P. M. (2004). Validating Generational Differences: A Legitimate Diversity And Leadership Issue. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(1/2), 124-141. doi:10.1108/01437730410521813

Houghton, J.D., C.P. Neck., C. C. Manz. (2003). We Think We Can, We Think We Can, We Think We Can: The Impact of Thinking Patterns and Self-Efficacy on Work Team Sustainability. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, Vol 9, No. 1/2: 31-41.

Sujansky, J.G., Ferri-Reed, J. (2009). Keeping The Millennials, Why Companies Are Losing Billions In Turnover To This Generation—And What To Do About It. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc

Loudenback, T. (2016). Millennials Are Rapidly Changing Today’s Business Landscape—Here Are 6 Reasons For It. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/jason-haber-millennials-best-social-entrepreneurs-2016-4

Gedeon, K. (2013). Millennials Have The Highest Employee Turnover Rate, Employers Call Them Expensive. Madame Noire Business Magazine.

Lancaster, L. C., & Stillman, D. (2002). When Generations Collide. Who They Are. Why They Clash. How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work. New York: Collins Business.

Thompson, C., & Gregory, J. B. (2012). Managing Millennials: A Framework for Improving Attraction, Motivation, And Retention. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 15(4), 237246. doi: 10.1080/10887156.2012.730444.

Zanen, D. (2018). Effective Leadership Attributes for Managing Millennials: A Dual-Perspective Approach. Tilburg University.

Schaefer, C.D. (2017). Factors Contributing to Millenial Turnover Rates in Department of Defense (DOD) Organizations. Dissertation Submitted To The Bisk College of Business at Florida Institute of Technology.

Mobley, W. (1982). Employee Turnover, Causes, Consequences, and Control: Addison-Wesley.

Osatuke, K., Moore, S.C., Ward, C., Dyrenforth, S.R., & Belton, L. (2009). Civility, Respect, Engagement in the Workforce (CREW) Nationwide Organization Development Intervention at Veterans Health Administration. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science Volume 45 Number 3 September 2009 p.384-410. Doi 10.1177/0021886309335067.

Abate, J., Schaefer, T., & Pavone, T. (2018). Understanding Generational Identity, Job Burnout, Job Satisfaction, Job Tenure And Turnover Intention. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 22(1), 1-12. Retrieved from https://www.abacademies.org/journals/journal-of-organizational-culturecommunications-and-conflict-home.html

Asiedu, G., Kumedzro, L., Aminu, S., & Boso, N. (2017). Linking Transformational Leadership To Turnover Intention In The Public Sector. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 8, 314-337. doi:10.1108/AJEMS-07-2016-0099

Smith, T., & Nichols, T. (2015). Understanding The Millennial Generation. The Journal of Business Diversity, 15(1), 39-47. Retrieved from http://www.nabusinesspress. com/jbdopen.html

Wells, J., & Peachey, J. (2011), Turnover Intentions: Do Leadership Behaviors And Satisfaction With The Leader Matter? Team Performance Management Journal, 17(1/2), 23-40. doi:10.1108/13527591111114693

Nurcahyanto, D., Rofiaty., & Rahaya, M. (2018). Paternalistic Leadership on Gen-Y Employees’ Turnover Intentions with Motivation And Satisfaction As A Mediator. Journal of Applied Management (JAM) Volume 16 Number 4, December 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.21776/ub.jam.2018. 016.04.08.

Suhail, S., & Zafar, O. (2013). Employee. Turnover Model. International SAMANM Journal of Marketing and Management July 2013, Vol. 1, No.2, 2308-2399.

Yuniasanti, R., Abas, N., Hamzah, H. (2019). Employee turnover intention among Millennials: The Role of Psychological Well-Being and Experienced Workplace Incivility. Humanitas Indonesian Psychological Journal Vol. 16, No. 1, August 2019, 74-85.

Nelsey, L., & Brownie, (2012). Effective Leadership, Teamwork and Mentoring - Essential Elements in Promoting Generational Cohesion In The Nursing Workforce And Retaining Nurses. Collegian (Royal College of Nursing, Australia). 19. 197-202. 10.1016/j.colegn.2012.03.002.

Rafferty, A.M., Ball, J., Aiken, L.H. (2001). Are Teamwork And Professional Autonomy Compatible, And Do They Result In Improved Hospital Care?. Qual Health Care. 2001;10(4):32-36.

Pinel, E., & Paulin, N. (2005). Stigma Consciousness at Work. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27, 345-352.

Abdillah, F. (2012). Hubungan Kohevitas Kelompok Dengan Intensi Turnover Pada Karyawan. Journal of Social and Industrial Psychology.1(2), h:52-58.

Aksel, I. (2008). Liderlik Teorileri. In C. Serinkan, Liderlik ve Motivasyon (pp. 33-61). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayincilik.

Alimudin, A., & Sukoco, A. (2017). The Leadership Style Model That Builds Work Behavior Through Organizational Culture. JURNAL LENTERA: Kajian Keagamaan, Keilmuan Dan Teknologi, 3(2),362-375.

Alimudin, A., Septian, D., Sasono, A. D., & Wulandari, A. (2017). Effect of Spiritual Leadership to Organizational Culture and Employee’s Loyalty. Jurnal Terapan Manajemen Dan Bisnis, 3(2), 76-86.

Apker, J., Propp, K. M., & Ford, W.S. (2009). Investigating the Effect of Nurse–Team Communication On Nurse Turnover: Relationships Among Communication, Identification, And Intent To Leave. Health Commun.2009;24(2):106-114. doi:10.1080/10410230802676508.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does The Transactional–Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational And National Boundaries?. American Psychologist, 52, 130. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130.

Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2009). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, And Managerial Applications. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting Unit Performance by Assessing Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 207-218. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.207.

Bawdy, E., Tarek, A., & Manal, B. (2014). Employee Engagement as A Mediator Between Transformational Leadership and Intention to Quit. Journal of Management, 12 (1).

Bencsik, A., Csikos, G., & Juhaz, T. (2016). Y and Z Generations at Workplaces. Journal of Competitiveness, 8(3), 90–106. https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2016.03.06.

Bencsik, A., & Machova, R. (2016). Knowledge Sharing Problems from The Viewpoint of Intergeneration Management. In ICMLG2016 - 4th International Conferenceon Management, Leadership and Governance: ICMLG2016 (p.42). Academic Conferences and publishing limited.

Buchholz, S., & Roth, S. (2000). Creating the High Performance Team. New Jersey. Wiley.

Caspi, A., & Roberts, B. W. (2001). Personality Development Across the Life Course: The Argument For Change And Continuity. Psychological Inquiry, 12(2), 49–66. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1202_01.

Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality Development: Stability and Shange. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484.doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090 902.141913.

De Cremer, D. (2006). Affective and Motivational Consequences Of Leader Self-Sacrifice: The Moderating Effect Of Autocratic Leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 79-93. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.10.005.

Dencker, J. C., Joshi, A., & Martocchio, J. J. (2008). Towards A Theoretical Framework Linking Generational Memories to Workplace Attitudes And Behaviors. Human Resource Management Review, 18(3), 180–187. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.07.007.

Dill, K. (2015). 7 Things Employers Should Know About the Gen Z Workforce, Forbes Magazine, 11.6. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/Kathryn dill/2015/11/06/7-thingsemployers-shouldknow-about-the-gen-z-workforce/print/.

Duffield C, Roche M, O'Brien-Pallas L, Catling-Paull C, King M. (2009). Staff Satisfaction and Retention and The Role of The Nursing Unit Manager. Collegian. 2009; 16(1): 11-17. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2008.12.004.

Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., & Van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles: A Mmeta-analysis Comparing Women and Men. Psychological bulletin, 129, 569. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.569.

Elmore, T. (2014). How Generation Z Differs from Generation Y. Retrieved July 01, 2015, from http://growingleaders.com/blog/generation-z-differs-generation-y/.

Estryn-Béhar, M., Van der Heijden, B.I., & Ogińska, H. (2007). The Impact of Social Work Environment, Teamwork Characteristics, Burnout, And Personal Factors Upon Intent to Leave Among European Nurses. Med Care. 2007;45(10):939-950. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e31806728d8.

Ferdinand. (2006). Metode Penelitian Manajemen. Semarang: Badan. Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Flippo, E.B. (1984). Personnel Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gastil, J. (1994). A Definition and Illustration of Democratic Leadership. Human Relations, 47, 953-975. doi: 10.1177/ 001872679404700805.

Gormley, D.K. (2011). Are We on The Same Page? Staff Nurse and Manager Perceptions of Work Environment, Quality of Care And Anticipated Nurse Turnover. J Nurs Manag. 2011;19(1):33-40. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01163.x.

Hosmer, D.W. & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (1991). Generations: the history of America’s future 1584 to 2069.

Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation. New York: Vintage.

Hobart, B., Sendek, H. (2014). Gen Y Now: Millennials and the Evolution of Leadership. John Wiley & Son.

Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C and Curphy, G. J. (2012). Leadership: Memperkaya Pelajaran dari Pengalaman, Edisi Ketujuh, Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.

Hunt, J. G. (1999). Transformational / Charismatic Leadership's Transformation of The Field: An Historical Essay. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 129-144. doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00015-6.

Jurkiewicz, C. L. (2000). Generation X and the Public Employee. Public Personnel Management, 29(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.1177/009102600002900105.

Kalisch, B.J., & Begeny, S.M. (2005). Improving Nursing Unit Teamwork. J Nurs Adm. 2005;35(12):550-556. doi:10.1097/00005110-200512000-00009.

Kerrin, M., & Oliver, N. (2002). Collective and Individual Improvement Activities: The Role Of Rewards Systems. Personnel Review Vol.31 No 3:335.

Krishnan, H.A. (2009). What Causes Turnover Among Women on Top Management Teams. Journal of Business Research 62 (pp.1181-1186).

Komariah. (2005). Visionary Leadership Menuju Sekolah Efektif. Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.

Kurniawan, H., & Alimudin, A. (2015). Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja, Motivasi Kerja dan Kedisiplinan Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan PT. Garam (Persero). Ilmu Manajemen Magistra, 1(2).

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R., & White, R.K. (1999). Patterns of Aggressive Behaviour In Experimentally Created ‘Social Climates’. In M. Gold (Ed.), The Complete Social Scientist: A Kurt Lewin Reader (pp. 227-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Lyons, S. (2004). An Exploration of Generational Values in Life and At Work. Proquest Dissertations and Theses, 441-441. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.um.edu.my/docview/305203456?accountid=28930

Mannheim, K. (1952). The Problem of Generations. Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge, 24(19), 276-322–24.

Martin, C. A., & Tulgan, B. (2002). Managing the Generational Mix. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.

Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H. (2011). Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Pub.

Michalek, F., & Long, M. (2013). Cohabitation with Millennials in The Workplace: A Contemporary Challenge of Leadership. Retrieved from: http://www.divaportal.org/ smash/get/diva2:631456/FULLTEXT01.pdf.

Noble, S. M., & Schewe, C. D. (2003). Cohort Segmentation: An Exploration of Its Validity. Journal of Business Research, 56(12), 979–987. doi:10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00268-0.

Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J., Eds. (2005). Educating the Net Gen. Washington, D.C.: EDUCAUSE.

Parry, E., & Urwin, P. (2010). Generational Differences in Work Values: A Review of Theory and Evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13, 79–96. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2010.00285.x.

Parsons, C. K., Herold, D. M., & Leatherwood, M. L. (1985). Turnover During Initial Employment: A Longitudinal Study of The Role of Causal Attributions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(2), 337–341.

Pearce, C. L., & Sims Jr, H. P. (2002). Vertical Versus Shared Leadership as Predictors of The Effectiveness Of Change Management Teams: An Examination Of Aversive, Directive, Transactional, Transformational, And Empowering Leader Behaviors. Group dynamics: Theory, research, and practice, 6, 172-197. doi:10.1037/1089-2699.6.2.172.

Pio, E. A. (2015). Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan Visioner, Kompensasi Tidak Langsung Dan Penempatan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Pegawai Di Sekretariat Daerah Kabupaten Minahasa Tenggara. Volume 3, pp. 1140-1150.

Raup, G.H. (2008) The Impact of ED Nurse Manager Leadership Style on Staff Nurse Turnover and Patient Satisfaction in Academic Health Center Hospitals. J Emerg Nurs. 2008;34(5):403-409. doi: 10.1016/j.jen.2007.08.020.

Ryder, N. B. (1965). The Cohort as a Concept in the Study of Social Change. American Sociological Review, 30(6), 843–861. https://doi.org/10.2307/2090964.

Sandra, D. (2007) Teamwork - Cara Menyenangkan Membangun Tim Impian. Bandung: Proggressio.

Skogstad, A., Einarsen, S., Torsheim, T., Aasland, M. S., & Hetland, H. (2007). The Destructiveness of Laissez-Faire Leadership Behavior. Journal of occupational health psychology, 12, 80-92. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.12.1.80.

Solimun, Fernandes, A.A.R, & Nurjannah. (2017). Metode Statistika Multivariat Permodelan Peramaan Struktural (SEM) – Pendekatan WarpPLS. Malang: UB Press.

Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A Review and Metanalysis of Research on The Relationship Between Behavioral Intentions and Employee Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology 69 (4):673-686.

Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational Versus Servant Leadership: A Difference in Leader Focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25, 349-361. doi: 10.1108/01437730410538671.

Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow & Co.

Twenge, J. M. (2006). Generation Me: Why Today’s Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled—and More Miserable Than Ever Before. New York: Free Press.

Van Eeden, R., Cilliers, F., & Van Deventer, V. (2008). Leadership Styles and Associated Personality Traits: Support for The Conceptualization of Transactional and Transformational Leadership. South African Journal of Psychology, 38, 253-267. doi: 10.1177/008124630803800201.

Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in Organizations – Global 8th Edition. Essex:Pearson.

Zemke, R., Raines, C., & Filipczak, B. (2000). Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace. New York: American Management Association.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Pratiwi, M., Dewi, S., & Hasyim, . (2021). The Role of Competency and Succession Program to Retain Millennial Healthcare Workers (Case Study in Indonesian Small Scale Maternity Hospital). European Journal of Business and Management Research, 6(1), 198-205. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.1.742