Revisiting the Hackman and Oldham Job Characteristics Model and Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Propositions on How to Make Job Enrichment Effective in Today’s Organizations


  •   Marwa Moses Siruri

  •   Stephen Cheche


In the increasingly competitive business landscape of today’s world, human resource management ought to optimize on the organization’s most important resource, the human resource, to maintain competitiveness. Such is possible through continually building into the motivation and job satisfaction of employees. While attaining both motivation and job satisfaction would ordinarily require different approaches, one of the most fundamental of approaches is through job enrichment interventions. This paper thus sequentially argues from propositions of two widely acclaimed theories viz the job characteristics model and the Herzberg’s two factor theory that the creation of good work environments, regularly enhancing employee’s skills and applying inspirational motivation and individual consideration could lead to success of job enrichment interventions, thereby leading to enhanced employee motivation, enhanced job satisfaction, and enhanced organizational performance.

Keywords: Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory, Job Characteristics Model, Job Enrichment


Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Motivating by Enriching Jobs to Make Them More Interesting and Challenging. International Journal of Management, Business, And Administration. 15(1).

Sarika, S. (2014). Role of Job Enrichment and Job Enlargement in Work Life Balance. Global Journal of Finance and Management. 6(3), 239-244.

Siruri M. M. and Muathe S.M. (2014). A Critical Review of Literature on Job Designs in Socio-Technical Systems. Global Journal of Commerce and Management Perspective. 3(6).

Huczynski, A. and Buchanan, D. (2007). Organizational Behavior. (6th Ed). Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Salau, O.P., Adeniji, A. A. & Oyewunmi, A. E. (2014). Relationship Between elements of job enrichment and organizational performance among the non-academic staff in Nigerian public universities. Marketing and Management Journal. 12 (2), 173-189.

Cummings, T.G., & Worley, C.G. (2009). Organization Development and Change (9th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western.

Pierce, J. R., & Aguinis, H. 2013. The too-much-of-a-good-thing effect in management. Journal of Management. 39: 313-338.

Siruri M. M., Namusonge, M. J., & M. Kilika, J. (2019). Influence of Technostructural Interventions on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management. 7(6).

Corine., Rory, E., David, P.L. & Paul, B. (2018). Integrating Strategic Human Capital and Strategic Human Resource Management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.29(1).34-67.

Fincham, R. & Rhodes, P. (1999). Principles of Organization Behavior. Oxford University Press: New York.

Robbins, S.P. (1990). Organization theory. Prentice Hall .3rd Ed.

Emmanuel Ejikeme Isichei & Isaac Ayanyinka Ayandele, 2017. "Operational Work System Design and Staff Performance in the Nigerian Construction Industry," Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, Centre for Strategic and International Entrepreneurship at the Cracow University of Economics., vol. 5(1), pages 187-200.

Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.

Faturochman, M.A. (1997). The Job Characteristics Theory: A Review. Bulletin Psikologi.5(2).

Pollert, A. (1991). The orthodoxy of flexibility. In A. Pollert, and A, Pollert (Ed.), Farewell to flexibility? Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Delbridge, R., Turnbull, P. & Wilkinson, B. (1992). Pushing back the frontiers; management control and work intensification under JIT/TQM Regimes. New technology, Work and employment. (7),97-106.

Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). Someone to watch over me; surveillance, discipline and just in time labor process. Sociology. 26(2), 271-289.

Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 46, 53-62.

Yusoff, W. F. W., Kian, T. S., & Idris, M. T. M. (2013). Herzberg’s two-factor theory on work motivation: Does it work for today environment. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective. 2 (5), 18-22.

Ruthankoon, R., & Ogunlana, S.O. (2003). Testing Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory in the Thai Construction Industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 10(5), 333-342.

Hutabarat, Wesly (2015). Investigation of Teacher Job-Performance Model: Organizational Culture, Work Motivation and Job-Satisfaction. Asian Social Science.11(18),295-304.

Marta, I. A., & Supartha, W. G. (2018). The Effect of Job Enrichment and Employee Empowerment to Organizational Commitment with Work Motivation as A Mediation. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 1(4), 494-506.

Benna, M.T, Brahmasari, I. A & Nugroho, R. (2017). The effect of job enrichment, self-efficacy and organizational commitment on job satisfaction and performance of civil servants of Department of Health, Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. International Journal of Business and Management Invention. 6(2).49-64.

Vijay,V.M & Indravevi, R.(2015). A Study on Job Enrichment and Individual Performance among Faculties with Special Reference to a Private University. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences.6(1)252-260.

Masoudi, I.A, Nazari, A & Raadabadi, M. (2015). Examining the Relationship between Job Enrichment and Performance: A Case Study of Nurses. Asian Social Science. 11 (18).

Opiyo, Ochieng and Owuor (2014). Effect of Job Redesign on Employee Performance in Commercial Banks in Kisumu, Kenya. Greener Journal of Business and Management Studies. 4 (4), 115-137.

Aninkan, D. O. (2014). The impact of reward management and job enrichment on job satisfaction among employees in the Ogun State Polytechnics. International Journal of Business and Management Invention.3(3), 19-26.

Parvin, M.M. (2011). Factors Affecting Employee Job Satisfaction of Pharmaceutical Sector. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research .1 (9). 113-123.

Samantaray, S. (2014). Use of storytelling method to develop spoken English skill. International Journal of Language & Linguistics, 1(1), 40-45.

Chandrasekhar, K. (2011). Workplace environment and its impact on organizational performance in public sector organizations. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems.1(1).

Ashkenazy, P. (2001). Innovative workplace practices and occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States. Economic and Industrial Democracy. 22(4),485-516.

Brenner, M.D., Fairris, D., & Ruser,J.W.(2004). Flexible work practices and occupational safety and health: exploring the relationship between cumulative trauma disorders and workplace transformation. Industrial relations. A journal of economy and economy.43(1).242-266.

Falola, H.O, Osibanjo, A.O & Ojo, S.I. (2014). Effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organization competitiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. Economic Sciences.7(56).

Maaly, M. A, Al-rifai, A & Momany, M.O. (2015). Training and its Impact on the Performance of Employees at Jordanian Universities from the Perspective of Employees: The Case of Yarmouk University. Journal of Education and Practice.6(32).

Zahra, S., Iram, A. & Naeem, H. (2014). Employee Training and Its Effect on Employees’ Job Motivation and Commitment: Developing and Proposing a Conceptual Model. Journal of Business and Management.16(9).60-68.

Samar, N. K., Morsy, M.A., Ahmed, G. S, Nabil A. A. (2016). Impact of Effective Training on Employee Performance in Hotel Establishments. Journal of Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Fayoum University.10 (1).

Burns, J.M. (2010). Leadership. New York City, NY: Harper Perennial.

Siruri M. M., Namusonge, M. J., & M. Kilika, J. (2019). The Moderating Effect of Leadership Styles in the Relationship between Employee Commitment and Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The International Journal of Business & Management. 7(6).

Subramanian, I.D., Arumugam, T. & Akel, A.B.A. (2014). Demographic and Family Related Barriers on Women Managers’ Career Development. Asian Social Science. 10(1).

Almutairi D.0. (2013). The relationship between leadership styles and organizational commitment: a test on a Saudi Arabian airline. World Review of Business Research. 3(1), 41–51.

Koech, P.M., and Namusonge, G.S., (2012). The Effect of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance at State Corporations in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 2(1), 1-12.

Umme, S. S., Darun, M.R.& Liu, Y. (2015). Transactional or transformational leadership: which works best for now? International Journal of Industrial Management. (20).

Tengi, M. L., Mansor, M. & Hashim, Z. (2017). A review of transformational leadership theory. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences.7(3).


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Siruri, M. M., & Cheche, S. (2021). Revisiting the Hackman and Oldham Job Characteristics Model and Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory: Propositions on How to Make Job Enrichment Effective in Today’s Organizations. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 6(2), 162–167.