•   Rao Tahir Anees

  •   Petra Heidler

  •   Luigi Pio Leonardo Cavaliere

  •   Nordiana Ahmad Nordin


This study seeks to determine the impact of job stress and workload on turnover intention along with the mediation role of job satisfaction. A total of 140 academics and management personnel participated in this study’s survey. A partial least square structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. The results show that job stress and workload have a positive effect on turnover intention, while job satisfaction mediates the relationship between job stress, workload, and turnover intention. Future research could adapt and adopt the herein used methodology and research topic to other countries or in other industries.

Keywords: Turnover Intention, Job Stress, Workload, Job Satisfaction


Wesley R. Pieters, Ebben van Zyl, Petrus Ne. Testing a model of turnover intention: Lecturers at the University of Namibia. SA Journal of Human Resource Management. 2020, 18(0), 1683-7584.

Sawahel, W. (2017). Cooperation the magic word for academic libraries. University World News. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story¼2017012 3113120770.

Theron M., Barkhuizen, N., Plessis, Y. D. Managing the academic talent void: Investigating factors in academic turnover and retention in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 2014, 40 (1), 2071-0763.

Wazir H, Jan I. Moderating effects of organizational commitment on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of Research in Emerging Markets. 2020 Sep 30;2(4): 48-57.

Agarwal, P., & Sajid, S. M. A study of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among public and private sector employees. J. Managem.Research. 2017, 17 (3), 123-136.

Özgeldi, M., & Elif, H.The Effects of Organizational Trust on Turnover intention. Financial and Credit Activity Problems of Theory and Practice, 2019, 488-494.

Tett, R. P., Meyer, J. P. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personal Psychology, 1993, 46, 259-291.

Bluedorn AC. A unified model of turnover from organizations. Human relations. 1982 Feb;35(2):135-53.

Kim, S. Y., & Fernandez, S. Employee empowerment and turnover intention in the US federal bureaucracy. Amer. Rev. Publ. Admin., 2017, 47(1), 4-22.

Reina, C. S., Rogers, K. M., Peterson, S. J., Byron, K., & Hom, P. W. (2018). Quitting the boss? The role of manager influence tactics and employee emotional engagement in voluntary turnover. J. Leaders. Organ. Stud., 2018, 25(1), 5-18.

Hancock, J. I., Allen, D. G., Bosco, F. A., McDaniel, K. R. and Pierce, C. A., “Meta-analytic review of employee turnover as a predictor of firm performance”, Journal of Management, 2013. Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 573-603.

Scanlan JN, Still M. Job satisfaction, burnout and turnover intention in occupational therapists working in mental health. Australian occupational therapy journal. 2013 Oct;60(5):310-8.

Pardiman, P. The effect of social capital and organizational commitment toward lecturer performance with islamic work ethics as a moderating role. JEMA: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Akuntansi Dan Manajemen, 2018. 15(1), 12-26.

Yu, J.; Ariza-Montes, A.; Giorgi, G.; Lee, A.; Han, H. Sustainable Relationship Development between Hotel Company and Its Employees: Linking Job Embeddedness, Job Satisfaction, Self-Efficacy, Job Performance, Work Engagement, and Turnover. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7168. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177168.

Dipboye RL. Social Structures in Organizations. InThe Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2018 Aug 13. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Darwis D, Badeni B, Danim S. Developing Model of Quality Assurance for Higher Education Institutes. In1st Yogyakarta International Conference on Educational Management/Administration and Pedagogy (YICEMAP 2017) 2017 May (pp. 393-399). Atlantis Press.

Ji-Young and Wang, Chaoyu. Job stress and turnover intention revisited: evidence from Korean firms. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 2019. 7(4), 52-61.

Kern JH, Grandey AA. Customer incivility as a social stressor: the role of race and racial identity for service employees. Journal of occupational health psychology. 2009 Jan;14(1):46.

Meier, L. L., & Semmer, N. K. Lack of reciprocity, narcissism, anger, and instigated workplace incivility: A moderated mediation model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 2013. 22(4), 461–475. doi:10.1080/1359432x.2012.654605.

McGrath, J. (1976). Stress and Behaviour in Organization. In Dunnette, M. D. (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1351-1395) Chicago: Rand McNally.

Petrus V. M., Siti E. A., Kusdi R., & Andriani K. (2018). The Influence of Spiritual Intelligence on Job Stress and Turnover Intention. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences. 11(83), 243-253.

Davis, K., & Newstrom, J.W. Human Behavior at Work: Organizational Behavior, Seventh edition. New York: McGraw Hills. (1985).

Imran B, Mariam S, Aryani F, Ramli AH. Job Stress, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention. InInternational Conference on Management, Accounting, and Economy (ICMAE 2020) 2020 Sep 15 (pp. 290-292). Atlantis Press.

Zhang W, Meng H, Yang S, Liu D. The influence of professional identity, job satisfaction, and work engagement on turnover intention among township health inspectors in China. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018 May;15(5):988.

Beehr TA, Gupta N. A note on the structure of employee withdrawal. Organizational behavior and human performance. 1978 Feb 1;21(1):73-9.

Liu W, Zhao S, Shi L, Zhang Z, Liu X, Li L, Duan X, Li G, Lou F, Jia X, Fan L. Workplace violence, job satisfaction, burnout, perceived organisational support and their effects on turnover intention among Chinese nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open. 2018 Jun 1;8(6). 019525.

Puangyoykeaw K, Nishide Y. Organizational commitment and turnover intention in low-skilled immigrant workers in Thailand: An empirical assessment of need satisfaction, job satisfaction and overall life satisfaction factors. International Journal of Business and Management. 2015 Mar 1;10(5):98.

Rizwan M, Arshad MQ, Munir HM, Iqbal F, Hussain A. Determinants of Employees intention to leave: A Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies. 2014 Jul 1;4(3):1-8.

Nideffer, R. M. Test of attentional and interpersonal style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1976. 34(3), 394–404. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.34.3.394.

Riggio RE, Riggio HR, Salinas C, Cole EJ. The role of social and emotional communication skills in leader emergence and effectiveness. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice. 2003 Jun;7(2):83.

Mackill DJ, Ismail AM, Pamplona AM, Sanchez DL, Carandang JJ, Septiningsih EM. Stress tolerant rice varieties for adaptation to a changing climate. Crop, Environment & Bioinformatics. 2010 Dec 1;7:250-9.

Pache AC, Santos F. When worlds collide: The internal dynamics of organizational responses to conflicting institutional demands. Academy of management review. 2010 Jul;35(3):455-76.

Lau Y. The effect of maternal stress and health-related quality of life on birth outcomes among Macao Chinese pregnant women. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing. 2013 Jan 1;27(1):14-24.

Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, Einhorn D, Hellman R, Hirsch IB, Inzucchi SE, Ismail-Beigi F, Kirkman MS, Umpierrez GE. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Diabetes care. 2009 Jun 1;32(6):1119-31.

Pache AC, Santos F. When worlds collide: The internal dynamics of organizational responses to conflicting institutional demands. Academy of management review. 2010 Jul;35(3):455-76.

Petersen PE. World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health-World Health Assembly 2007. International dental journal. 2008 Jun 1;58(3):115-21.

Ekpenyong CE, Inyang UC. Associations between worker characteristics, workplace factors, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a cross-sectional study of male construction workers in Nigeria. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 2014 Jan 1;20(3):447-62.

Vijayalakshmi P, Pashupu DR, Thimmaiah R, Math SB. Nurses attitudes and perceptions of nursing research: an Indian perspective. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2014 Oct 1;4(4):509.

Cullen KL, Edwards BD, Casper WC, Gue KR. Employees’ adaptability and perceptions of change-related uncertainty: Implications for perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology. 2014 Jun 1;29(2):269-80.

Ismail A, Ghani AB, Subhan M, Joarder MH, Ridzuan AA. The relationship between stress and job satisfaction: an evidence from Malaysian peacekeeping mission. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2015 Aug 18;6(4):647.

Lazrus, R. S. (2013). Psychological Stress in the Workplace. Fifty Years of the Research and Theory of RS Lazarus: An Analysis of Historical and Perennial Issues, 312.

Millward LJ, Postmes T. Who we are affects how we do: The financial benefits of organizational identification. British Journal of Management. 2010 Jun;21(2):327-39.

Rodriguez D, Buyens D, Van Landeghem H, Lasio V. Impact of lean production on perceived job autonomy and job satisfaction: An experimental study. Human factors and ergonomics in manufacturing & service industries. 2016 Mar;26(2):159-76.

Bottonari KA, Roberts JE, Kelly MA, Kashdan TB, Ciesla JA. A prospective investigation of the impact of attachment style on stress generation among clinically depressed individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2007 Jan 1;45(1):179-88.

Ahsan N, Abdullah Z, Fie DY, Alam SS. A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia: Empirical study. European journal of social sciences. 2009 Mar;8(1):121-31.

Smith A.P., & Smith H. N. (2017). Workload, Fatigue and Performance in the Rail Industry. In: Longo L., Leva M. (eds) Human Mental Workload: Models and Applications. H-WORKLOAD 2017. Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 726. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61061-0_17.

Arshad MZ, Shahidan AN, Ibrahim Siam IM, Alshuaibi AS. Effect of Role Conflict and Work Overload on Job Stress: A Case of Banking Sector Employees. Talent Development & Excellence. 2020 Mar 2;12.

Tham P, Meagher G. Working in human services: How do experiences and working conditions in child welfare social work compare?. British Journal of Social Work. 2009 Jul 1;39(5):807-27.

Lee E, Jang I. Nurses’ fatigue, job stress, organizational culture, and turnover intention: A Culture–Work Health model. Western journal of nursing research. 2020 Feb;42(2):108-16.

Masta, N., & Riyanto, S. (2020). The Effect of Transformational Leadership, Perceived Organizational Support and Workload on Turnover Intention Sharia Banking Company in Jakarta. Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies. Vol. 5(8): 473-481.

Rizka, F. M., Ardiana, I. D. K. R., & Andjarwati, T. (2020). The Effect of Workload, Pay Satisfaction, Work Satisfaction on Turnover Intention, and Performance of Employees of Angkasa Pura Logistic Indonesia. International Journal of Social Science and Economics Invention, 06(02), 234-241.

Suarthana, J. H. P., & Riana, I. G. (2016). The Effect of Psychological Contract Breach and Workload on Intention to Leave: Mediating Role of Job Stress. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 717-723.

Tulangow, M. J., Saerang, D. P. E., & Rumokoy, F. S. (2018). The Effect of Job Stress, Work Environment, and Workload on Employee Turnover Intention (Case Study at PT. Wika Reality Manado). Journal EMBA, 6(2), 474-482.

Hart, S. M., & Warren, A. M. (2015). Understanding nurses’ work: Exploring the links between changing work, labour relations, workload, stress, retention and recruitment. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 36(2), 305-329.

Seo Y, Ko J, Price JL. The determinants of job satisfaction among hospital nurses: a model estimation in Korea. International journal of nursing studies. 2004 May 1;41(4):437-46.

Xiaoming, Y., Ma, B. J., Chang, C. L., & Shieh, C. J., (2014). Effects of Workload on Burnout and Turnover Intention of Medical Staff: A Study. Studies on Ethno-Medicine. Vol. 8(3), 229-237. DOI: 10.31901/24566772.2014/08.03.04

Zhang Y, Kumada T. Relationship between workload and mind-wandering in simulated driving. PloS one. 2017 May 3;12(5):e0176962.

Tentama F, Rahmawati P, Muhopilah P. The effect and implications of work stress and workload on job satisfaction. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. 2019;8(11):2498-502.

Fazey, M. (2013). Human Resource Policy: Connecting Strategy with Real-world Practice. Australia: Tilde Publishing and Distribution.

Thomas J, Noel-Storr A, Marshall I, Wallace B, McDonald S, Mavergames C, Glasziou P, Shemilt I, Synnot A, Turner T, Elliott J. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2017 Nov 1;91:31-7.

Beaven, K. (2019). Strategic Human Resource Management: An HR Professional’s Toolkit. London: Kogan Page, Limited.

Darwish, T. K., & Fattaah, P. M. A. (2020). Human Resource Management in an Emerging South Asian Economy: The Case of Brunei. New York: Routledge.

Klussmann A, Liebers F, Brandstädt F, Schust M, Serafin P, Schäfer A, Gebhardt H, Hartmann B, Steinberg U. Validation of newly developed and redesigned key indicator methods for assessment of different working conditions with physical workloads based on mixed-methods design: a study protocol. BMJ open. 2017 Aug 1;7(8):e015412.

Hilma H, Amanah D, Harahap DA. The Workload and organizational commitment to job satisfaction. The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2020 Jun 8;6: 30-33.

Dipboye RL. Structured and unstructured selection interviews: Beyond the job-fit model. Research in personnel and human resources management. 1994;12:79-123.

Dwiyanti R, Hamzah HB, Abas NB. Job satisfaction, psychological contracts, and turnover intention: Role of social support as a mediator. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478). 2019 Oct 20;8(6):96-104.

Ramli AH. Work environment, job satisfaction and employee performance in health services. Business and Entrepreneurial Review. 2019 Aug 24;19(1):29-42.

Lambert EG, Qureshi H, Frank J, Klahm C, Smith B. Job stress, job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment and their associations with job burnout among Indian police officers: A research note. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. 2018 Jun;33(2):85-99.

Kim MJ, Han JY. Effect of head nurses' authentic leadership on nurses' job satisfaction and nursing performance: Focusing on the mediating effects of empowerment. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2019 Jan 1;25(1):25-34.

Rothmann, S., Diedericks, E., & Swart, J. P. (2013). Manager relations, psychological need satisfaction and intention to leave in the agricultural sector. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1-14.

Ahmad, B., Shahid, M., Huma, Z., & Haider, S. (2012). Turnover intention: An HRM issue in the textile sector. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(12), 125-130.

Ahn, J. Y., Chaoyu, W. (2019). Job stress and turnover intention revisited: evidence from Korean firms. Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 17 (4), 52-61.

Griffeth RW, Hom PW, Gaertner S. A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of management. 2000 Jun;26(3):463-88.

Duraisingam V, Pidd K, Roche AM. The impact of work stress and job satisfaction on turnover intentions: A study of Australian specialist alcohol and other drug workers. Drugs: education, prevention and policy. 2009 Jan 1;16(3):217-31.

Victor B, Cullen JB. The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative science quarterly. 1988 Mar 1:101-25.

Koskenvuori, J., Numminen, O., & Suhonen, R. (2019). Ethical climate in nursing environment: A scoping review. Nurs Ethics. 26: 327-345.

Anjum, T., Amoozegar, A., Nazar, N., & Kanwal, N. (2020). Intervening effect of attitudes towards entrepreneurship: Correlation between passion and entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5 Special Issue), 1327–1340.

Anjum, T., Ramzani, S. R., & Farrukh, M. (2018). Entrepreneurial Intentions of Pakistani Students: The Role of Entrepreneurial Education, Creativity Disposition, Invention Passion & Passion for Founding. Journal of Management Research, 10(3), 76-100. https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v10i3.13253

Anjum, T., Ramzani, S. R., & Nazar, N. (2019). Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Study of Business Students from Universities of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Psychology, 1(2), 72-88.

Anjum, T., Ramzani, S.R., Nazar, N., Shahzad, I.A. and Salman, S. (2018). Entrepreneurial Intention: Does Entrepreneurial Education Matter in Pakistan? International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 8(3), 147-161. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v8i3.13213.

Anees, R. T., Nordin, N. A., Anjum, T., Cavaliere, L. P. L., & Heidler, P. (2020). Evaluating the Impact of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Strategies on Customer Retention (A Study of Fast Food Chains in Pakistan). Business Management and Strategy, 11(2), 117–133. https://doi.org/10.5296/bms.v11i2.17934.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411

Anjum, T., Farrukh, M., Heidler, P., & Tautiva, J. A. D. (2021). Entrepreneurial Intention: Creativity, Entrepreneurship, and University Support. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex, 7(1), 1-13.

Farrukh, M., Lee, J. W. C., Sajid, M., & Waheed, A. (2019). Entrepreneurial intentions: The role of individualism and collectivism in perspective of theory of planned behaviour. Education+Training.

Anees R. T., Raju V, Cavaliere LP, Heidler P, Nordin N.A. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Market Orientation on Sales Performance: The Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation. PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. 2020 Nov 28; 17(7):6377-97.

Zreen, A., Farrukh, M., Nazar, N., & Khalid, R. (2019). The Role of Internship and Business Incubation Programs in Forming Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Empirical Analysis from Pakistan. Journal of Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 27(2), 97-113.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.

Chin, W. W. (1998). Modern Methods for Business Research. Modern Methods for Business Research. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410604385.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2017). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling, pp. 1-5. Sage Publications: Los Angeles, CA.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980.

Anees, R. T., Raju, D. V., & Anjum, T. (2020). A Mediating Role of Adaptive Selling Behavior: Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Sales Performance. Beverage Industry of Pakistan. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(1), 5266–5275.

Saeed Muhammad, Temoor Anjum, Fahad Khan Afridi, D. I. I. A. (2020). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Project Success Criteria: The Moderating Role of Work Engagement. Palarch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(6), 7460–7476.

Morales-Rodríguez FM, Pérez-Mármol JM. The Role of Anxiety, Coping Strategies, and Emotional Intelligence on General Perceived Self-Efficacy in University Students. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1689.

Alcover C-M, Salgado S, Nazar G, Ramírez-Vielma R, González-Suhr C. Job insecurity, financial threat and mental health in the COVID-19 context: The buffer role of perceived social support. medRxiv. 1. Januar 2020;2020.07.31.20165910.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Anees, R. T., Heidler, P., Cavaliere, L. P. L., & Nordin, N. A. (2021). Brain Drain in Higher Education. The Impact of Job Stress and Workload on Turnover Intention and the Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction at Universities. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 6(3), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.849