•   Walid Abdullah Al-Suraihi

  •   Siti Aida Samikon

  •   Al-Hussain Abdullah Al-Suraihi

  •   Ishaq Ibrahim


This research aims to understand the causes of employee turnover and retention strategies in an organization. Key research findings indicate that employees have several reasons to leave their workplaces, such as job stress, job satisfaction, job security, work environment, motivation, wages, and rewards. Furthermore, employee turnover has a huge impact on an organization due to the costs associated with employee turnover and can negatively impact the productivity, sustainability, competitiveness, and profitability of an organization. However, the organization must understand the needs of its employees, which will help organizations, adopt certain strategies to improve employee performance and reduce turnover. Thus, implementing strategies will increase job satisfaction, motivation and the productivity of individuals and organizations, which can reduce employment problems, absenteeism, and employee turnover.

Keywords: Turnover Intention, Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, Work Environment, Retention Strategies


A. Belete, “Turnover Intention Influencing Factors of Employees: An Empirical Work Review,” J. Entrep. Organ. Manag., vol. 07, no. 03, pp. 23–31, 2018, doi: 10.4172/2169-026X.1000253.

N. E. Alias, S. Ismail, R. Othman, and W.-L. Koe, “Factors Influencing Turnover Intention in a Malaysian Manufacturing Company,” KnE Soc. Sci., vol. 3, no. 10, p. 771, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.18502/kss.v3i10.3171.

J. D. Smith, “Successful Strategies for Reducing Employee Turnover in the Restaurant Industry,” 2018.

A. Hussein Alkahtani, “Investigating Factors that Influence Employees’ Turnover Intention: A Review of Existing Empirical Works,” Int. J. Bus. Manag., vol. 10, no. 12, p. 152, 2015, doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v10n12p152.

C. A. Al Mamun and M. N. Hasan, “Factors affecting employee turnover and sound retention strategies in business organization: A conceptual view,” Probl. Perspect. Manag., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 63–71, 2017, doi: 10.21511/ppm.15(1).2017.06.

A. F. Schlechter, C. Syce, and M. Bussin, “Predicting voluntary turnover in employees using demographic characteristics: A South African case study,” Acta Commer., vol. 16, no. 1, 2016, doi: 10.4102/ac.v16i1.274.

A. A. Al-suraihi, N. A. Wahab, and W. A. Al-suraihi, “The Effect of Entrepreneurship Orientation on Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia,” Asian J. Entrep., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 14–25, 2020, doi: http://myjms.moe.gov.my/index.php/aje.

Minister of Human Resources Malaysia, “National Employment Returns Report 2016,” 2016.

S. Ilmi, Habizah, H. Xue Qi, M. Gheda, and M. Liza, “Employee Turnover of Quantity Surveying Firms in Malaysia,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 636, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/636/1/012020.

W. H. Mobley, “Employee Turnover: Causes, Consequences, and Control”, Price Ind. Labor Relations Rev., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 506–507, 1983.

A. L. Hakim, Sudarmiatin, and Sutrisno, “The Effect of Work Stress on Turnover Intention with Work Satisfaction and Commitment as Intervening Variable (Study at PT Infomedia Solusi Humanika in Malang),” Eur. J. Bus. Manag., vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 85–94, 2018, [Online]. Available: www.iiste.org.

L. Branham, “How to Recognize the Subtle Signs,” 7 Reason. employees leave, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1–8, 2005.

S. Alaarj, Z. Abidin-Mohamed, and U. S. B. A. Bustamam, “Mediating Role of Trust on the Effects of Knowledge Management Capabilities on Organizational Performance,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 235, no. October, pp. 729–738, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.074.

M. Alhamwan and N. Mat., “Antecedents of Turnover Intention Behavior among Nurses: A Theoretical Review,” J. Manag. Sustain., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 84–89, 2015, doi: 10.5539/jms.v5n1p84.

M. A. Alshammari, B. A. A. L. Qaied, H. Al-Mawali, and M. Matalqa, “What drives employee’s involvement and turnover intentions: Empirical investigation of factors influencing employee involvement and turnover intentions?”, Int. Rev. Manag. Mark., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 298–306, 2016.

P. E. Spector et al., “Cross-national differences in relationships of work demands, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions with work-family conflict,” Pers. Psychol., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 805–835, 2007, doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00092.x.

A. R. Jaffari, J. Aziz, Z. Hussain, N. Akhtar, and K. Ur-Rehman, “Prime and sub-prime factors of employee voluntary turnover in boom phase of industry: Empirical evidence from banking sector of Pakistan,” African J. Bus. Manag., vol. 5, no. 15, pp. 6408–6414, Aug. 2011, doi: 10.5897/AJBM10.1556.

W. H. Mobley, “Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 237–240, 1977, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.62.2.237.

I. Ahmed and N. A. Kolachi, “Employee Payroll and Training Budget: Case Study Of A Non-Teaching Healthcare Organization,” J. Bus. Econ. Res., vol. 11, no. 5, p. 229, Apr. 2013, doi: 10.19030/jber.v11i5.7838.

Y. Chen, C. Wang, and W. Cheng, “Structural investigation of the relationship between working satisfaction and employee turnover,” J. Hum. …, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2010.

K. Shahzad, U. Rehman, I. Shad, A. Gul, and M. Amnulah Khan, “Work-life policies and job stress as determinants of turnover intentions of customer service representatives in Pakistan,” Eur. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 403–411, 2011.

I. Ibrahim, A. B. Melhem, and K. Ali, “The Impact of Challenging Work on Employee’s Retention in the Manufacturing Industry in Klang Valley,” Int. J. Psychol. Cogn. Sci., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2019.

I. Mohammad and A. Jahangir, “Factors influencing Intention to Quit or Stay in Jobs: An Empirical Study on selected sectors in Bangladesh,” Stamford J. Bus. Stud., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 142–164, 2014, [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292963289_Factors_influencing_Intention_to_Quit_or_Stay_in_Jobs_An_Empirical_Study_on_selected_sectors_in_Bangladesh.

N. S. Govindarajo, M. Dileep Kumar, and S. S. Ramulu, “Why workers disengage? Factors from ‘head’ or ‘heart’ to be tagged on?,” Asian Soc. Sci., vol. 10, no. 17, pp. 108–119, 2014, doi: 10.5539/ass.v10n17p108.

W. (Amy) Tian‐Foreman, “Job satisfaction and turnover in the Chinese retail industry,” Chinese Manag. Stud., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 356–378, Oct. 2009, doi: 10.1108/17506140911007503.

W. A. Al-Suraihi, A. H. Yusuf, and A.-H. A. Al-Suraihi, “The Effect of Job Characteristics and Perceived Organizational Support on Employee Turnover Intention in the Retail Sector in Malaysia,” Int. J. Bus. Technol. Manag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 118–125, Jun. 2020, [Online]. Available: http://myjms.mohe.gov.my/index.php/ijbtm/article/view/11146.

A. Asegid, T. Belachew, and E. Yimam, “Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia,” Nurs. Res. Pract., vol. 2014, pp. 1–26, 2014, doi: 10.1155/2014/909768.

C. Long and P. Perumal, “Examining the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Employees’ Turnover Intention,” Int. J. Bus. Soc., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 111–126, 2014.

A. Abdullah, A. A. Bilau, A. M. Ajagbe, and S. A. Bustani, “Small and medium sized construction firms job satisfaction and performance evaluation in Nigeria,” Int. Dr. Fellowsh. Res. Univ. Grant, 2011.

T. C. Keng, N. Nur, A. Mohamed, and Y. K. Ching, “Strategies of quantity surveying firms to reduce turnover intention,” Int. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1–4, 2019.

M. W. Akhtar, A. Shabir, M. S. Safdar, and M. S. Akhtar, “Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intentions: The Role of Organizational Commitment and Perceive Organizational Support,” J. Account. Mark., vol. 06, no. 04, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2168-9601.1000259.

B. C. Holtom and T. C. Burch, “A model of turnover-based disruption in customer services,” Hum. Resour. Manag. Rev., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.09.004.

S. G. Green, S. E. Anderson, and S. L. Shivers, “Demographic and organizational influences on leader-member exchange and related work attitudes,” Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 203–214, May 1996, doi: 10.1006/obhd.1996.0049.

S. W. J. Kozlowski and B. S. Bell, “Work Groups and Teams in Organizations,” in Handbook of Psychology, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, pp. 333–375.

A. O. Banwo and J. Du, “When the good outweighs the bad: organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the workplace,” Hum. Resour. Dev. Int., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 88–97, 2020, doi: 10.1080/13678868.2018.1449546.

J. P. Hausknecht and C. O. Trevor, “Collective turnover at the group, unit, and organizational levels: Evidence, issues, and implications,” J. Manage., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 352–388, Jan. 2011, doi: 10.1177/0149206310383910.

J. P. Hausknecht, C. O. Trevor, and M. J. Howard, “Unit-Level Voluntary Turnover Rates and Customer Service Quality: Implications of Group Cohesiveness, Newcomer Concentration, and Size,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 1068–1075, 2009, doi: 10.1037/a0015898.

M. Thomas, V. Kohli, and J. Choi, “Correlates of job burnout among human services workers: Implications for workforce retention,” J. Sociol. Soc. Welf., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 69–90, 2014, Accessed: Apr. 03, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jsswAvailableat:https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol41/iss4/5.

M. Mitchell and C. D. Zatzick, “Skill underutilization and collective turnover in a professional service firm,” J. Manag. Dev., vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 787–802, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1108/JMD-09-2013-0112.

P. Prasetio, A. Partono, and P. Wulansari, “The Mediation of Job Satisfaction in the Relation of Work Stress and Turnover Intention in Hotel Industry,” 1st Int. Conf. Econ. Business, Entrep. Financ., vol. 65, no. 2352–5428, pp. 608–612, 2019.

R. Markey, K. Ravenswood, and D. J. Webber, “Quality of work environment and quitting intention: A dilemma,” New Zeal. J. Employ. Relations, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 35–52, 2015, [Online]. Available: http://ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1686086241?accountid=14656%0Ahttp://gw2jh3xr2c.search.serialssolutions.com/directLink?&atitle=Quality+of+work+environment+and+quitting+intention%3A+A+dilemma&author=Markey%2C+Raym.

A. Nanda, M. Soelton, S. Luiza, and E. T. P. Saratian, “The Effect of Psychological Work Environment and Work Loads on Turnover Interest, Work Stress as an Intervening Variable,” vol. 120, no. Icmeb 2019, pp. 225–231, 2020, doi: 10.2991/aebmr.k.200205.040.

A. A. Soomro, R. J. Breitenecker, and S. A. M. Shah, “Relation of work-life balance, work-family conflict, and family-work conflict with the employee performance-moderating role of job satisfaction,” South Asian J. Bus. Stud., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 129–146, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1108/SAJBS-02-2017-0018.

C. Kerdpitak and K. Jermsittiparsert, “The effects of workplace stress, work-life balance on turnover intention: An empirical evidence from pharmaceutical industry in Thailand,” Syst. Rev. Pharm., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 586–594, 2020, doi: 10.5530/srp.2020.2.86.

I. H. Mohd, M. Mohd Shah, and N. S. Z. Zailan, “How Work Environment affects the Employee Engagement in a Telecommunication Company,” in International Conference on Business and Economics, Nov. 2016, pp. 418–426, doi: 10.15405/epsbs.2016.11.02.37.

H. N. K. Giao, B. N. Vuong, D. D. Huan, H. Tushar, and T. N. Quan, “The Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention and the Moderating Role of Perceived Organizational Support: Evidence from the Banking Industry of Vietnam,” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 1857, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12051857.

Y. M. Yunus, K. Idris, A. A. Rahman, and H. I. Lai, “The role of Quality of Nursing Work Life and Turnover Intention in Primary Healthcare Services among Registered Nurses in Selangor,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1201–1213, 2017, doi: 10.6007/ijarbss/v7-i6/3353.

G. K. Özbağ and G. Ç. Ceyhun, “Does Job Satisfaction Mediate the Relationship between Work-family Conflict and Turnover? A Study of Turkish Marine Pilots,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 140, pp. 643–649, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.485.

S. Harrison and P. A. Gordon, “Misconceptions of Employee Turnover: Evidence-Based Information For The Retail Grocery Industry,” J. Bus. Econ. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, p. 145, 2014, doi: 10.19030/jber.v12i2.8528.

M. Yu and H. Lee, “Impact of resilience and job involvement on turnover intention of new graduate nurses using structural equation modeling,” Japan J. Nurs. Sci., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 351–362, 2018, doi: 10.1111/jjns.12210.

J. N. Scanlan and M. Still, “Relationships between burnout, turnover intention, job satisfaction, job demands and job resources for mental health personnel in an Australian mental health service,” BMC Health Serv. Res., vol. 19, no. 1, p. 62, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3841-z.

C. Huang, K. Wu, and Y. Zhang, “Understanding precedents for frontline employee turnover in luxury hotels: Emotional intelligence as a unifying factor,” J. Hum. Resour. Hosp. Tour., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 26–46, 2019, doi: 10.1080/15332845.2019.1526504.

W. Rahman and Z. Nas, “Employee development and turnover intention: Theory validation,” Eur. J. Train. Dev., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 564–579, 2013, doi: 10.1108/EJTD-May-2012-0015.

C. S. Reina, K. M. Rogers, S. J. Peterson, K. Byron, and P. W. Hom, “Quitting the Boss? The Role of Manager Influence Tactics and Employee Emotional Engagement in Voluntary Turnover,” J. Leadersh. Organ. Stud., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2018, doi: 10.1177/1548051817709007.

Omer Azam, Hafiz Ghufran Ali Khan, A. Khan, and Abdul Zahid Khan, “Impact of Passive Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intentions; Mediating Effect of Organizational Interpersonal Trust,” Rev. Econ. Dev. Stud., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 663–674, 2019, doi: 10.26710/reads.v5i4.663.

O. Brinck and H. Larsson, “Workplace Values, Sustainable Employment and Turnover Intention: a Generational Perspective,” Umeå Univ., 2019.

C. S. Long, L. Y. Thean, W. Khairuzzaman, W. Ismail, and A. Jusoh, “Leadership styles and employees’ turnover intention: Exploratory study of academic staff in a Malaysian college,” World Appl. Sci. J., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 575–581, 2012, doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.19.04.155.

L. K. Ladelsky, “Causes affecting voluntary turnover in IT sector. Review of some empirical studies,” vol. 6, pp. 102–114, 2013.

M. Matsuo, “Human resource development programs for knowledge transfer and creation: the case of the Toyota Technical Development Corporation,” J. Knowl. Manag., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1186–1203, 2015, doi: 10.1108/JKM-03-2015-0108.

L. Duxbury and M. Halinski, “Dealing with the ‘Grumpy Boomers’: Re-engaging the disengaged and retaining talent,” J. Organ. Chang. Manag., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 660–676, 2014, doi: 10.1108/JOCM-05-2014-0106.

G. Hofstede, Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London; New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

M. Girish, “Exploring the Term ‘Employee Turnover,’” J. Adv. Sch. Res., vol. II, no. Ii, pp. 1–7, 2011.

L. Kessler, “the Effect of Job Satisfaction on It Employees Turnover Intention,” Ann. Univ. Oradea, pp. 1028–1039, 2014.

S. Kim, L. Tam, J. N. Kim, and Y. Rhee, “Determinants of employee turnover intention: Understanding the roles of organizational justice, supervisory justice, authoritarian organizational culture and organization-employee relationship quality,” Corp. Commun., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 308–328, 2017, doi: 10.1108/CCIJ-11-2016-0074.

H. Roshidi, “Factors Influencing Turnover Intention Among Technical Employees in Information Technology Organization: A Case of XYZ (M) Sdn. Bhd.,” Int. J. Arts Commer., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 120–137, 2014.

B. K. Lee, D. K. Seo, J. T. Lee, A. R. Lee, H. N. Jeon, and D. U. Han, “Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists,” J. Phys. Ther. Sci., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 2358–2361, 2016, doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.2358.

M. Coetzee and D. Pauw, “Staff Perception of Leader Emotional Competency as a Predictor of Satisfaction with Retention Factors,” J. Psychol. Africa, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 177–185, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1080/14330237.2013.10820613.

E. MJ, A. EU, and P. NM, “Impact of Workplace Environment on Health Workers,” Occup. Med. Heal. Aff., vol. 05, no. 02, 2017, doi: 10.4172/2329-6879.1000261.

N. Kamarulzaman, N. Z. Zulkeflee, H. A. Hamid, N. Sahari, and F. N. A. Halim, “Exploring the Factors of High Turnover in Retail Industry in Negeri Sembilan,” Procedia Econ. Financ., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 896–902, 2015, doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01187-9.

L. K. Siew, “Analysis of the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Turnover Intention within Small Medium Enterprise in Malaysia,” J. Arts Soc. Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2017.

M. Falahat, S. K. Gee, and C. M. Liew, “A model for turnover intention: Banking industry in Malaysia,” Asian Acad. Manag. J., vol. 24, pp. 79–91, 2019, doi: 10.21315/aamj2019.24.s2.6.

C. D. Ainer, C. Subramaniam, and L. Arokiasamy, “Determinants of Turnover Intention in the Private Universities in Malaysia: A Conceptual Paper,” SHS Web Conf., vol. 56, p. 03004, 2018, doi: 10.1051/shsconf/20185603004.

M. A. Demircioglu and E. Berman, “Effects of the Innovation Climate on Turnover Intention in the Australian Public Service,” Am. Rev. Public Adm., 2018, doi: 10.1177/0275074018808914.

A. Mohsin, J. Lengler, and R. Aguzzoli, “Staff turnover in hotels: Exploring the quadratic and linear relationships,” Tour. Manag., vol. 51, pp. 35–48, 2015.

A. Beato, “Effective Strategies Employed by Retail Store Leaders to Reduce Employee Turnover,” Walden Univ., 2017, doi: ProQuest 10278363.

A. Noor, Y. Zainuddin, S. K. Panigrahi, and F. binti T. Rahim, “Investigating the Relationship among Fit Organization, Organization Commitment and Employee’s Intention to Stay: Malaysian Context,” Glob. Bus. Rev., 2018, doi: 10.1177/0972150918755896.

G. Zaman, N. Ali, and N. Ali, “Impact of Organizational justice on employees outcomes: An Empirical Evidence,” Abasyn J. Soc. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 44–53, 2010.

M. Noh, H. Jang, and B. J. Choi, “Organisational justice, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention among Korean IT professionals: Moderating roles of job characteristics and social support,” Int. J. Technol. Manag., vol. 79, no. 3–4, pp. 322–344, 2019, doi: 10.1504/ijtm.2019.10021163.

B. I. Van der Heijden, M. C. Peeters, P. M. Le Blanc, and J. W. M. Van Breukelen, “Job characteristics and experience as predictors of occupational turnover intention and occupational turnover in the European nursing sector,” J. Vocat. Behav., vol. 108, no. June, pp. 108–120, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2018.06.008.

J. Bersin, “Employee Retention Now a Big Issue: Why the Tide has Turned,” Bersin by Deloitte, no. 16 August, pp. 1–4, 2013.

A. Dube, Eric Freeman, and M. Reich, “Employee Replacement Costs,” Inst. Res. Labor Employment, UC Berkeley, no. 201, 2010.

K. Brzezinski, Why employees stay: A quantitative study of retention. Edgewood College, 2014.

B. Meaghan and N. Stovel, “Voluntary turnover: Knowledge management – friend or foe?”, J. Intellect. Cap., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 303–322, 2002, doi: 10.1108/14691930210435633.

H. A. Sullenger, “How Corporate Trainers Get Groupies: A Q methodology Study of Viewpoints on Why Trainees Seek out the Same Corporate Trainer for Additional Training,” 2019.

R. A. Hashim and M. A. Mohamad Nor, “Employer branding and employee engagement of furniture retailer in Klang Valley,” SHS Web Conf., vol. 56, p. 02003, 2018, doi: 10.1051/shsconf/20185602003.

G. C. W. Gim, N. M. Desa, and T. Ramayah, “Competitive Psychological Climate and Turnover Intention with the Mediating Role of Affective Commitment,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 172, pp. 658–665, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.416.

Q. Iqbal, N. Hazlina Ahmad, and S. Akhtar, “The Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness Fit: Perceived Job Characteristics and Turnover Intention in the Services Sector,” Lahore J. Bus., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 71–92, 2017, doi: 10.35536/ljb.2017.v6.i1.a4.

M. J. Burnett, “Strategies to Reduce Employee Turnover in the Durable Goods Industry,” ProQuest Diss. Theses, p. 166, 2018, [Online]. Available: https://search.proquest.com/docview/2103316508?accountid=17242.

A. L. Heavey, J. A. Holwerda, and J. P. Hausknecht, “Causes and consequences of collective turnover: A meta-analytic review,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 412–453, 2013, doi: 10.1037/a0032380.

G. Tumwesigye, “The relationship between perceived organisational support and turnover intentions in a developing country: The mediating role of organisational commitment,” African J. Bus. Manag., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 942–952, 2010.

Z. Ton and R. S. Huckman, “Managing the impact of employee turnover on performance: The role of process conformance,” Organ. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 56–68, 2008, doi: 10.1287/orsc.1070.0294.

R. F. Hurley and H. Estelami, “An exploratory study of employee turnover indicators as predictors of customer satisfaction,” J. Serv. Mark., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 186–199, May 2007, doi: 10.1108/08876040710746543.

M. Tapola, “Effects of employee turnover on service quality and customer satisfaction in contact centers Title of thesis Effects of employee turnover on service quality and customer satisfaction in contact centers,” Aalto Univ. Sch. Bus., pp. 1–125, 2016, [Online]. Available: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f226/946a12538471762d7d399939ebeed0effacf.pdf.

W. A. Al-Suraihi, A.-H. A. Al-Suraihi, I. Ibrahim, A. Al-Tahitah, and M. Abdulrab, “The Effect of Customer Relationship Management on Consumer Behavior: A Case of Retail Industry in Malaysia,” Int. J. Manag. Hum. Sci., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 32–40, 2020.

C. Hare, “The food‐shopping experience: a satisfaction survey of older Scottish consumers,” Int. J. Retail Distrib. Manag., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 244–255, May 2003, doi: 10.1108/09590550310472415.

M. Kang and M. Sung, “To leave or not to leave: the effects of perceptions of organizational justice on employee turnover intention via employee-organization relationship and employee job engagement,” J. Public Relations Res., vol. 31, no. 5–6, pp. 152–175, 2019, doi: 10.1080/1062726X.2019.1680988.

Y. Tsai and S.-W. Wu, “The relationships between organisational citizenship behaviour, job satisfaction and turnover intention,” J. Clin. Nurs., vol. 19, no. 23–24, pp. 3564–3574, Dec. 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03375.x.

K. Woods, “Exploring the relationship between employee turnover rate and customer satisfaction levels,” Exch., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 18–28, 2015.

A. A. H. Ebtsam, “Relationship between ethical work climate and nurses’ perception of organizational support, commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intent,” Nurs. Ethics, pp. 1–16, 2015.

U. Saraih, A. Zuraini Zin Aris, and R. Ahmad, “Factors Affecting Turnover Intention Among Academician in the Malaysian Higher Educational Institution,” Rev. Integr. Bus. Econ. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2016.

K. K. Michele, M. C. Andrews, D. L. Van Rooy, R. Chris Steilberg, and S. Cerrone, “Sure everyone can be replaced . . . But at what cost? Turnover as a predictor of unit-level performance,” Acad. Manag. J., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 133–144, 2006, doi: 10.5465/amj.2006.20785670.

J. C. McElroy, P. C. Morrow, and S. N. Rude, “Turnover and organizational performance: A comparative analysis of the effects of voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force turnover,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1294–1299, 2001, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1294.

S. Banu, G. Krishnapillai, and P. Padmashantini, “Customer Retention Practices Among the Major Retailers in Malaysia,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 157–166, 2012.

S. Benn, S. T. T. Teo, and A. Martin, “Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment,” Pers. Rev., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 492–510, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1108/PR-10-2013-0179.

J. M. Inabinett and J. M. Ballaro, “Developing an organization by predicting employee retention by matching corporate culture with employee’s values: A correlation study.,” Organ. Dev. J., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 55–74, 2014.

O. S. Shaban, Z. Al-Zubi, N. Ali, and A. Alqotaish, “The Effect of Low Morale and Motivation on Employees’ Productivity & Competitiveness in Jordanian Industrial Companies,” Int. Bus. Res., vol. 10, no. 7, p. 1, 2017, doi: 10.5539/ibr.v10n7p1.

N. Rathi and K. Lee, “Retaining talent by enhancing organizational prestige,” Pers. Rev., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 454–469, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1108/PR-05-2013-0070.

A. Raj and A. Arokiasamy, “A Qualitative Study on Causes and Effects of Employee Turnover in the Private Sector in Malaysia,” Middle-East J. Sci. Res. Manag. Soc. Sci. Plaza Teh Teng Seng. Soc. Sci., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1532–1541, 2013, doi: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.16.11.12044.

G. S. Becker, “Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis,” J. Polit. Econ., vol. 70, no. 5, Part 2, pp. 9–49, 1962, doi: 10.1086/258724.

S. Osborne and M. S. Hammoud, “Effective Employee Engagement in the Workplace,” Int. J. Appl. Manag. Technol., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 50–67, 2017, doi: 10.5590/IJAMT.2017.16.1.04.

M. A. Sanjeev, “Impact of Individual and Employment Variable on Job Satisfaction & Turnover Intention among Sales and Marketing Professionals,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 122, pp. 55–62, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2017.11.341.

K. Carleton, “How to motivate and retain knowledge workers in organizations: A review of the literature,” Int. J. Manag., vol. 28, no. 2, p. 459, 2011.

A. M. Mosadeghrad, “Quality of working life: An antecedent to employee turnover intention,” Int. J. Heal. Policy Manag., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2013, doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2013.07.

V. Jagun, “An Investigation into the High Turnover of Employees within the Irish Hospitality Sector, Identifying What Methods of Retention Should Be Adopted. A Dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the MA in Human Resource Management,” 2015.

B. J. Osabiya, “The effect of employees motivation on organizational performance,” J. Public Adm. Policy Res., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 62–75, 2015, doi: 10.5897/jpapr2014.0300.

J. Afsana, F. Afrin, and T. Tarannum, “Effect of Training on Employee Performance: An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh,” J. Bus. Technol., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 67–80, 2016, doi: 10.3329/jbt.v10i2.29468.

J. W. Pfeiffer, 1990 annual, developing human resources, First. University Associates, San Diego, 1990.

K. Jehanzeb, A. Rasheed, and M. F. Rasheed, “Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of Employee’s Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia,” Int. J. Bus. Manag., vol. 8, no. 8, p. p79, Mar. 2013, doi: 10.5539/ijbm.v8n8p79.

M. E. Motlokoa, L. P. Sekantsi, and R. P. Monyolo, “The Impact of Training on Employees’ Performance: The Case of Banking Sector in Lesotho,” Int. J. Hum. Resour. Stud., vol. 8, no. 2, p. 16, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.5296/ijhrs.v8i2.12812.

N. Barkhuizen, P. Mogwere, and N. Schutte, “Talent management, work engagement and service quality orientation of support staff in a higher education institution,” Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 69–77, 2014, doi: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n4p69.

S. Marasi, S. S. Cox, and R. J. Bennett, “Job embeddedness: is it always a good thing?,” J. Manag. Psychol., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 141–153, 2016, doi: 10.1108/JMP-05-2013-0150.

S. Nazir, A. Shafi, W. Qun, N. Nazir, and Q. D. Tran, “Influence of organizational rewards on organizational commitment and turnover intentions,” Empl. Relations, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 596–619, 2016, doi: 10.1108/ER-12-2014-0150.

R. J. Laudicina, T. C. Moon, S. Beck, and J. C. Morgan, “Retaining experts: retention incentives of clinical laboratory professionals.,” Clin. Lab. Sci., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 150–161, 2014, doi: 10.29074/ascls.27.3.150.

S. K. Divya and S. Gomathi, “Effective Work Place Training: A Jump Starter to Organizational Competitive Advantage through Employee Development,” Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 49–53, May 2015, doi: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3p49.

A. Raziq and R. Maulabakhsh, “Impact of Working Environment on Job Satisfaction,” Procedia Econ. Financ., 2015, doi: 10.1016/s2212-5671(15)00524-9.

P. Bibi, A. Ahmad, and A. H. A. Majid, “The impact of training and development and supervisors support on employees retention in academic institutions in Pakistan: The moderating role of the work environment,” Gadjah Mada Int. J. Bus., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 113–131, 2018, doi: 10.22146/gamaijb.24020.

W. F. W. Yusoff, T. S. Kian, and M. T. M. Idris, “Herzberg ’ s Two-Factor Theory on Work Motivation : Does it Works for Todays Environment ?,” Glob. J. Commer. &Managment Perspect., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 18–22, 2013.

Y. Akgunduz and G. Eryilmaz, “Does turnover intention mediate the effects of job insecurity and co-worker support on social loafing?”, Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 68, no. March 2017, pp. 41–49, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.09.010.

K. Haldorai, W. G. Kim, S. G. Pillai, T. (Eliot) Park, and K. Balasubramanian, “Factors affecting hotel employees’ attrition and turnover: Application of pull-push-mooring framework,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 83, no. October 2018, pp. 46–55, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.04.003.

J. Wynen and S. Op de Beeck, “The Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis on Turnover Intention in the U.S. Federal Government,” Public Pers. Manage., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 565–585, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1177/0091026014537043.

K. Bin Bae and D. Goodman, “The Influence of Family-Friendly Policies on Turnover and Performance in South Korea,” Public Pers. Manage., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 520–542, Dec. 2014, doi: 10.1177/0091026014536055.

T. Lovick-mcdaniel, “Nonmonetary Strategies to Increase Employee Job Satisfaction in Nonprofit Organizations,” WALDEN Diss. Dr. Stud., 2019.

R. Markey, K. Ravenswood, and D. J. Webber, “The impact of the quality of the work environment on employees’ intention to quit,” Work. Pap., 2012.

Y. Badrianto and M. Ekhsan, “Effect of Work Environment and Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance in Pt. Nesinak Industries,” Manag. Account., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2020, [Online]. Available: http://e-journal.stie-kusumanegara.ac.id.

S. Pawirosumarto, P. K. Sarjana, and R. Gunawan, “The effect of work environment, leadership style, and organizational culture towards job satisfaction and its implication towards employee performance in Parador hotels and resorts, Indonesia,” Int. J. Law Manag., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1337–1358, 2017, doi: 10.1108/IJLMA-10-2016-0085.

S. R. Sardeshmukh, D. Sharma, and T. D. Golden, “Impact of telework on exhaustion and job engagement: a job demands and job resources model,” New Technol. Work Employ., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 193–207, Nov. 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1468-005X.2012.00284.x.

P. Nidan, “To study the impact of employee engagement on employee productivity and motivational level of employee in retail sector,” IOSR J. Bus. Manag., no. e-ISSN: 2278-487X, pp. 41–47, 2016, [Online]. Available: www.iosrjournals.org.

L. Mory, B. W. Wirtz, and V. Göttel, “Corporate social responsibility strategies and their impact on employees’ commitment,” J. Strateg. Manag., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 172–201, May 2016, doi: 10.1108/JSMA-12-2014-0097.

K. Nadeem, M. A. Khan, N. Imtiaz, and Y. Iftikhar, “Turnover Intention and Perceived Organizational Support; Mediating Role of Work Engagement and Organizational Commitment,” Eur. Sci. J. ESJ, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 222–236, 2019, doi: 10.19044/esj.2019.v15n10p222.

R. Gigliotti, J. Vardaman, D. R. Marshall, and K. Gonzalez, “The Role of Perceived Organizational Support in Individual Change Readiness,” J. Chang. Manag., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 86–100, 2019, doi: 10.1080/14697017.2018.1459784.

G. Giorgi, D. Dubin, and J. F. Perez, “Perceived organizational support for enhancing welfare at work: A regression tree model,” Front. Psychol., vol. 7, no. DEC, pp. 1–9, 2016, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01770.

H. Ahmad and M. Qadir, “Dimensions of Perceived Over Qualification, Perceived Organizational Support and Turnover Intentions,” J. Manag. Hum. Resour., vol. 1, pp. 18–33, 2018, doi: https://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:ksb:joumhr:v:1:y:2018:p:18-33.

J. D. Smith, “Successful Strategies for Reducing Employee Turnover in the Restaurant Industry,” 2018.

S. Sarkum, B. A. Pramuka, and A. Suroso, “A Strategy Engagement in Marketing: A Reviews of the Literature,” Int. J. Sci. Basic Appl. Res., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 120–127, 2017, doi: 10.31227/osf.io/kw9uz.

O. Saoula and H. Johari, “The Mediating Effect of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour on the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Turnover Intention: A Proposed Framework,” Int. Rev. Manag. Mark., vol. 6, pp. 345–354, Jul. 2016, [Online]. Available: https://www.econjournals.com/index.php/irmm/article/view/3950/pdf.

Chan Sweet LY, K. H. Yeah, L. C. Fei, N. K. Mun, and S. W. Choo, “High Performance Work System (HPWS) and turnover Intention in Malaysia Retail Industry,” 2017.

G. Saridakis and C. Cooper, Research Handbook on Employee Turnover. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.

R. Islam and A. Z. H. Ismail, “Employee motivation: A Malaysian perspective,” Int. J. Commer. Manag., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 344–362, 2008, doi: 10.1108/10569210810921960.

D. P. Moynihan and S. K. Pandey, “Finding workable levers over work motivation: Comparing job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment,” Adm. Soc., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 803–832, 2007, doi: 10.1177/0095399707305546.

R. N. Kanungo, “Measurement of job and work involvement,” J. Appl. Psychol., vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 341–349, Jun. 1982, doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.67.3.341.

T. A. Joiner and S. Bakalis, “The antecedents of organizational commitment: The case of Australian casual academics,” Int. J. Educ. Manag., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 439–452, 2006, doi: 10.1108/09513540610683694.

H. L. Wan, “Relationship between organisational justice and organisational citizenship behaviour: Examining the mediating role of job satisfaction,” Manag. Organ. Concepts, Tools Appl., no. 2008, pp. 77–97, 2017, doi: 10.18515/dbem.m2017.n02.ch07.

J. P. Leider, E. Harper, J. W. Shon, K. Sellers, and B. C. Castrucci, “Job satisfaction and expected turnover among federal, state, and local public health practitioners,” Am. J. Public Health, vol. 106, no. 10, pp. 1782–1788, 2016, doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303305.

M. Serreqi, “Relationship of Pay and Job Satisfaction,” Eur. J. Mark. Econ., vol. 8659, no. August, pp. 116–122, 2020.

Ishaq Ibrahim, Kalsom Ali, and Abdul Rahim Zumrah, “An Empirical Study: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between Belongingness and Employee Retention in Malaysian Manufacturing Industry,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2019.

X. (Roy) Zhao, R. Ghiselli, R. Law, and J. Ma, “Motivating frontline employees: Role of job characteristics in work and life satisfaction,” J. Hosp. Tour. Manag., vol. 27, pp. 27–38, Jun. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.01.010.

M. K. Ahuja, K. M. Chudoba, C. J. Kacmar, D. Harrison McKnight, and J. F. George, “It road warriors: Balancing work-family conflict, job autonomy, and work overload to mitigate turnover intentions,” MIS Q. Manag. Inf. Syst., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2007, doi: 10.2307/25148778.

M. S. Ab Talib, “Motivations and benefits of halal food safety certification,” J. Islam. Mark., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 605–624, 2017, doi: 10.1108/JIMA-08-2015-0063.

A. Papa, L. Dezi, G. L. Gregori, J. Mueller, and N. Miglietta, “Improving innovation performance through knowledge acquisition: the moderating role of employee retention and human resource management practices,” J. Knowl. Manag., 2018, doi: 10.1108/JKM-09-2017-0391.

A. Presbitero, B. Roxas, and D. Chadee, “Looking beyond HRM practices in enhancing employee retention in BPOs: focus on employee–organisation value fit,” Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag., 2016, doi: 10.1080/09585192.2015.1035306.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Al-Suraihi, W. A., Samikon, S. A., Al-Suraihi, A.-H. A., & Ibrahim, I. (2021). Employee Turnover: Causes, Importance and Retention Strategies. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 6(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejbmr.2021.6.3.893