European Journal of Business and Management Research 2020-05-29T22:06:27-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems European Journal of Business and Management Research Mapping Evolution of Audit Quality Measurement 2020-05-29T22:06:27-04:00 T. Husain <p>This study discusses the audit quality measurement issues. The issue becomes important because of difficult will be to define audit quality measurements by many researchers. This research aims to map audit quality measurements with certain aspects and becomes important in making it easier for researchers, especially beginner researchers to choose the approach to audit quality measurement. The type of research is explanatory with a qualitative approach. Data analysis methods doing three steps viz. data reduction, data display, and data verification with data triangulation technique. The findings of this study show that researchers who are interested in measuring audit quality variables should do to mapping first to understand of measurement formats into the audit quality proxies according to the definition of audit quality, derived from proxies used in previous studies, measurement formulation and choose the use of scales. This study is very important considering secondary data usage will look at the measurement scale category to determine the methods and data analysis techniques to be selected as well as the statistical program assistance which can be used.</p> 2020-05-09T08:45:32-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 T. Husain COVID – 19 on Lockdown, Social Distancing and Flattening the Curve – A Review 2020-05-29T22:06:27-04:00 Adela Paingan Balasa <p class="Abstract">The novel corona outbreak that started in Wuhan China in Autumn 2019, has infected and killed hundreds of thousands of people all over the world. People around the world are scared because a vaccine has not yet been developed to cure this disease. Scientists and health experts around the world are working hard to develop medical countermeasures to control the spread of the COVID 19 outbreak. COVID-19 pandemic created an unprecedented world crisis to our health and changed the way we perceived our world and our everyday lives. To be able to contain the pattern of transmission of this deadly virus, health experts suggests to each one of us to observe the required safety measures such as social distancing and washing our hands with soap and water in a regular basis and observe a proper hygiene. The role of different mass media channels skyrocketing in our lives on different levels. During this time of the pandemic, mass media have been highly recognized as strongest forces in promoting solidarity to people around the world. It has been followed by an increasing volume of research closed to the footsteps of technological transformations intended to map mass media strongest impacts on how we perceived ourselves during this time of the pandemic. Why lockdown and social distancing amid corona virus? When will this outbreak end? What does flattening the curve mean in relation to Corona Virus? This paper discusses the significance of social distancing, lockdown and flattening the curve as countermeasures in order to win the fight against COVID 19. Meanwhile, other interventions and prevention measures such as, lockdown, community quarantine and social distancing are all the necessary interventions and prevention measures that governments all over the world are urging their citizens to do in order to delay and prevent the spread as well as to flatten the curve against COVID-19.</p> 2020-05-11T14:00:36-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Adela Paingan Balasa The Readiness of Community Based Tourism Village Development (Case Study at Bongkasa Pertiwi Tourism Village, Bali Province, Indonesia) 2020-05-29T22:06:26-04:00 Putu Yudy Wijaya Putu Sri Hartati Ni Komang Sumadi <p>Village tourism for the benefit of the community in the development of tourism, so that people with culture are not only for tourism purposes, but are able to improve welfare and preservation. The purpose of this research is to study the readiness of the Bongkasa Pertiwi Tourism Village as a tourism village based on Community Based Tourism. There are several aspect to analyze the readiness of tourism village, i.e.: (1) Socio-economic aspects, (2) Socio-cultural aspects, (3) Environmental aspects (4) management aspects. Based on the results of an assessment of the readiness of developing the Bongkasa Pertiwi Tourism Village, the level of community-based tourism development readiness is quite potential. Some aspects that are decisive in the readiness to develop Community Based Tourism are social and environmental aspects with sufficient potential, while the socio-economic and management aspects have potential that is not yet optimal.</p> 2020-05-15T04:25:57-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Putu Yudy Wijaya, Putu Sri Hartati, Ni Komang Sumadi Have Your Cake and Eat It, Too? The Practical Challenges Executives Face with the Mutual Gains Approach to Negotiations 2020-05-29T22:06:25-04:00 Katarzyna Jagodzinska <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Winning a negotiation is undeniably the most desirable outcome for most negotiators. Unfortunately, a focus on one-sided gains rarely leads to sustainable agreements. In today`s competitive business environment it is therefore essential to reach a negotiation outcome that not only bridges the interests of both parties, but also enforces the relationship between them. While the idea that negotiators should strive towards mutually acceptable solutions has already been examined in literature, few studies address the practical challenges that executives face when they apply the mutual gains approach to negotiations in modern business practice. </span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This article introduces a systematic 6-step process, which encompasses the key elements of the mutual gains approach to negotiation and the challenges that business executives typically face with the application of each element. The study provides a straightforward and user-friendly framework that can be used to prepare for a negotiation or at any time during a negotiation to avoid the most common mistakes and boost the chances of reaching executable agreements.</span></p> 2020-05-15T04:51:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Katarzyna Jagodzinska Financial Reporting Standards and Cost of Waters in Corporate Organization 2020-05-22T08:34:55-04:00 Adesola Adebayo Akande <p>This paper examined costs of waters and its disclosures propensity in financial statement of corporate organizations with a view to advocate for a suitable reporting standards globally. International Accounting Standard Board has not specifically announced or produced any financial reporting standard in support of reporting cost of waters despite the huge amount of monies that some corporate industries incurred on it. Both primary and secondary data were sourced from six breweries that uses water as one of their major raw materials and analyzed through descriptive statistics techniques of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Simple Percentage Method (SPM). The result revealed that there were significant relationship between earnings and cost incurred on waters by some specialized industries like breweries, juice manufacturers and food processing companies &nbsp;in Nigeria and as such affects the earning potentials of the organization. On the average, water cost showed p-value of (0.04) &gt; (0.05) level of significant in and p-value of (0.18) &gt; (0.05) level of significant when reported differently from environmental costs. The result obtained from (80.1%) of the corporate affair section of six breweries and 65.7% professional accountants judgement from selected districts of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Nigeria showed that there is urgent needs to provide for a separate standard of reporting such cost especially for specialized industries that uses water as their major input/raw material in their production. The study concludes that reporting cost of waters separately will project the principles of IFRS as prescribed by the board. Thus, the basic principles of human rights, cost standardization, environmental pollution protection and treatment-costs could be accounted for and reported in all the continent of the world. &nbsp;Based on this, the study recommends that accounting standards making bodies need to give cost of waters adequate consideration with allotment of appropriate standards for disclosure and reporting of costs of waters for all corporate organization world-wide to allign uniformity in financial reporting.</p> 2020-05-22T08:34:55-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Adesola Adebayo Akande Financial Reporting and Shareholders’ Crave for Investment in Nigerian Listed Companies: The Earnings Management Question 2020-05-22T08:50:37-04:00 Uwem Etim Uwah Joseph O. Udoayang <p>This study examined the extent to which earnings management could be a factor in the higher value of stock in the Nigerian capital market, thereby being an inducement to invest in companies listed in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The contemporary viewpoint of financial consultants, firm of auditors and academicians about the subject matter was sought. Interviews were granted, in conjunction with secondary data from the Security and Exchange Commission and the Nigerian Stock Exchange. A comprehensive research design which was garnished by the use of content analysis of relevant literature and theories was adopted. The findings of previous empirical studies were corroborated in the analysis from discussions with accounting professionals in the academia and audit firms. It was concluded that most investments in quoted companies are made as a result of earnings management mechanisms inherent in financial reports. It was recommended that the Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria and every stakeholder should act to ensure that corporate governance practice is actually achieved for sound financial reporting practice.</p> 2020-05-22T08:50:37-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Uwem Etim Uwah, Joseph O. Udoayang The Influence of Inflation Level, Exchange Rate and Gross Domestic Product on Foreign Direct Investment in the ASEAN Countries on 2007 - 2018 2020-05-22T12:39:43-04:00 John FoEh Ni Kadek Suryani Shakti Silpama <p>This research aims to determine the effect of the inflation rate, exchange rate and gross domestic product to the foreign direct investment in the ASEAN countries in periods of 2007-2016. The object of this research is the foreign direct investment in 11 countries of ASEAN region such as; Brunei Darussalam, Philippines, Indonesia, Cambodia Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. The data used are secondary data with analysis by a panel data regression model using with an estimated model of random effect which were processed by Eviews tools version 10. The results of this study indicate that simultaneously the inflation rate, exchange rate, and gross domestic product have a very significant effect to the foreign direct investment. Partially, the inflation rate has a significant negative effect on foreign direct investment, while the exchange rate has a significant positive effect on foreign direct investment. The further analysis showed that the gross domestic product has no significant effect on foreign direct investment.</p> 2020-05-22T12:39:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 John FoEh, Ni Kadek Suryani, Shakti Silpama A Conceptual Study of Technology Adoption of Online Mutual Fund Investment Platform 2020-05-22T13:00:02-04:00 Elena Kusuma Dewi R. A. Rahadi <p>Mutual Funds is an alternative investment designed as a means to raise funds from people who have capital and have the desire to invest, but only have limited time and knowledge. In addition, Mutual Funds are also expected to increase the role of local investors to invest in the capital market. To encourage an increase in the number of investors, the first online mutual fund investment platform was launched in Indonesia in 2016. Over time, similar platforms began to appear. The theory of technology adoption is implemented in this study to analyze how technology adoption of online mutual fund investment with millennials as the main object of research. Based on various literacies, there are several factors that influence a person to adopt online mutual fund investment, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, price value, habits, content design quality, user interface and perceived trust.</p> 2020-05-22T13:00:02-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elena Kusuma Dewi, R. A. Rahadi Budgets and Performance of Research Projects in Public Universities in the Coastal Region, Kenya 2020-05-25T15:09:17-04:00 Hamisi Jitta Mwaguni John Mbugua Charles Rambo <p>The purpose of the study was to assess how budgets influences performance of research projects of public universities in Coast region, Kenya. The study used a pragmatism paradigm. A descriptive survey and correlation research design were adopted. A targeted population of 1110 academic and non-academic employees for the two universities were used for this study. A sample of 285; consisting of 173 from Technical University of Mombasa and 112 from Pwani University was employed through proportionate and simple random sampling to obtain a representative sample. Primary data collection was done by use of interview guide and open and close ended questionnaires. A pilot test was conducted at University of Nairobi main campus as it would provide a representation of the study to test data collections tools reliability and validity. Data analysis was by inferential and descriptive statistics; mean, frequencies, percentages and standard deviation. Shapiro-Wilk Test was employed to establish whether data was normally distributed or not and adjustments were made to make the data normal. Durbin Watson method was also used to test autocorrelation of the variables. The findings established that budget influences performance of research projects with a composite mean of 3.93 and standard deviation of 0.747. Budget had a positive strong correlation at 0.89. The data also established a positive relationship amongst budget on performance of research projects in public universities. Further studies can be done on other monitoring and evaluation tools to ascertain which is most appropriate for monitoring and evaluation tool. Further studies should be conducted in other parastatals.</p> 2020-05-25T15:09:17-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hamisi Jitta Mwaguni, John Mbugua, Charles Rambo Role of Immigrants in the Labor Force Across Four Leading Robot Countries 2020-05-25T15:41:52-04:00 Irma Baneviciene Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė <p>Robots is one of the attributes of Industry 4.0. The implementation of industrial robots is an indication that country is reforming its industry to meet new immerging requirements; however, the changes in industry create new workforce roles that test the countries readiness for industrial transformation. We analyze four countries that has the most industrial robots’ implementation in the world - Singapore, Rep. of Korea, Germany and Japan – with respect to how they are dealing with filling in the immerging roles with skilled and high-skilled workers. The analysis showed that all countries experience shortage of workforce, but there is no pattern in how they are filling in the gaps.</p> 2020-05-25T15:41:52-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Irma Baneviciene, Vilmantė Kumpikaitė-Valiūnienė Non-Oil Tax Revenue on Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria 2020-05-28T01:35:43-04:00 Folajimi Festus Adegbie Nwaobia A. N. Nwaobia Olalekan Osinowo <p>Globally, government is experiencing difficulties in generating adequate revenue to finance their activities. In Nigeria, studies have shown that the recent sharp reduction in the revenue was as a result of decline in crude oil prices which inversely affected the financial ability of government towards growth and development of the nation. To this end, this paper therefore investigated the effect of non-oil taxes on economic growth and development of Nigeria. The study employed ex-post facto research design. Macro data for the period 1994Q1-2017Q4 representing seventy six (76) observations were obtained from CBN statistical bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics. The documents were already exposed to the scrutiny of the appropriate regulatory agencies. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics employing multiple regressions. The study discovered that non-oil taxes (custom and excise duties, capital gain tax, company income tax, tertiary education tax and value added tax) have significant effect on economic growth. (Adj. R2 = 0.75, F(5,71) = 213.43, p&lt; .0.05). The individual effects are also positive and statistically significant: (VAT- β = 8.011, t(76)= 2.802, ρ&lt;0.05, CIT- β = 2.560, t(76)= 2.383, ρ&lt;0.05, CED - β = 1.767, t(76)=3.092, ρ&lt;0.05, CGT- β = 4.162, t(76)= 3.509, ρ&lt;0.05, and TET- β = 0.161, t(76)= 2.443, ρ&lt;0.05). This study concluded that non-oil taxes significantly influenced both economic growth and economic development in Nigeria. The study recommended that government must strive to sustain the current unflinching commitment towards improving non-oil tax revenue, ensure Tertiary Education Tax collected translates into real development and also ensure efficient utilization of tax payers’ money to boost non-oil tax revenue collection which will then lead to economic growth and development.</p> 2020-05-28T01:35:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Folajimi Festus Adegbie, Olalekan Osinowo, Nwaobia A. N. Nwaobia Perceptions about Decision Making in Entrepreneurship from the Perspective of Community Participants in Accra, Ghana 2020-05-29T15:02:44-04:00 Rexford Owusu Okyireh <p>In this paper, we explored the experiences of twelve (12) community participants in the La Nkwantanang municipality (Accra) on when deciding for entrepreneurial activities. These participants were purposively selected from a previous study on entrepreneurial cognitions. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study identified&nbsp; three major themes; perceptions attached to entrepreneurial activities; perceptions of past entrepreneurial experiences on decisions towards future venture creation; and potential challenges in decision-making for entrepreneurial businesses emerged from the narratives. Implications of the findings are discussed for theory and practice.</p> 2020-05-29T15:02:44-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Rexford Owusu Okyireh