European Journal of Business and Management Research https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr European Journal of Business and Management Research en-US <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript&nbsp;represents&nbsp;that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> editor@ejbmr.org (Editor-in-Chief) editor@ejbmr.org (Support Team) Fri, 01 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Proposed Customer-based Brand Equity (CBBE) Strategy for Railway Courier Service – Case Study: Rail Express of PT Kereta Api Indonesia https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/670 <p>PT Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI) is a railway transportation service provider in Indonesia. In 2019, KAI launched railway courier service to support logistic sector, called Rail Express. Despite the advantages of railway courier service in providing low-cost fee and minimum risk of time delay and accident, low market penetration indicates brand awareness in the market is still very low. The main objective of this study is to develop customer-based brand equity strategy for railway courier service, by using Rail Express as the case to carry out the research. This study used a series of qualitative method research to fully comprehend the business situation and propose the solution to the business problem. First, in-depth interviews were conducted to the management and staff of KAI to assess external and internal environments of railway courier service. Second, focus group discussions were conducted to gain consumers’ insight related to brand awareness and brand image of Rail Express. The discussion was attended by 16 participants that represent Rail Express target market of e-commerce buyer and seller. Third, this study used TOWS matrix to generate business solution alternatives based on previous analysis findings. As the result, this study formulated three main strategies to build customer-based brand equity: first, integrated marketing communication to establish brand awareness by increasing brand recall and brand recognition; second, brand repositioning to establish brand image by developing brand associations related to positive image and technology; and third, improvement on existing marketing mix, i.e., product, distribution channel, and price strategies.</p> Fahmi Aulia Rahman, Nita Garnida Copyright (c) 2021 Fahmi Aulia Rahman, Nita Garnida http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/670 Thu, 07 Jan 2021 09:20:30 -0500 Did Asset Securitization Affect the Banking Financial Performance? https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/666 <p>This study investigates the impact of asset securitization on banking financial performance. The authors examined the effect between the independent variables (Asset-backed securities (ABS), Loan Loss Provisions (LLP), and Size), and the dependent variable (Return on Assets (ROA), Size has a moderating variable effect on Return on Assets.</p> <p>The banks improved profitability (ROA) by selling their loans receivable portfolio to the capital market to get liquidity. Furthermore, the bank significantly changed the role of acting as intermediaries between borrowers and depositors for the last decade. The authors used a sample of 12 commercial banks from Southeast Asian Countries and the regression model used for panel data analysis from 1998 to 2018.</p> <p>The results show that Asset-backed securities have found a significant positive Return on Assets. However, some empirical evidence found that asset securitization increases Profitability decreases Loan Loss Provisions and reduces bank securitization’s default risk.</p> <p>For future research, it is recommended to explore several variables to get a better result bank’s financial performance, such as Return on Equity, Debt to Equity Ratio, and Net Interest Margin.</p> Gos Ishak, Farah Margaretha Leon, Bahtiar Usman Copyright (c) 2021 Gos Ishak, Farah Margaretha Leon, Bahtiar Usman http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/666 Thu, 07 Jan 2021 09:26:00 -0500 Comparative Analysis of Nigeria and Malaysia’s Production Sharing Contract (PSC) https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/678 <p class="Abstract">The oil and gas industry is governed by policies with the aim of smoothening the business relationship between the Government, the International Oil Companies (IOC’s) and the Host communities. Different oil producing countries have their own laws governing petroleum activities and these laws vary from country to country based on the B-PEST factors which are Biological, Political, Environmental, Social and Technology. However, reserve size and oil type can also influence petroleum laws. Countries like Nigeria relies strongly on petroleum bills such as the PIB in which this research will be analyzing the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) which is a significant subset of the PIB. Comparison between the existing PSC of Malaysia and that of Nigeria was captured in this research and the analysis of the PSC was done based on the Government Take, National Oil Company (NOC) and the Contractor’s benefits. 26.67% and 56.58% recovery cost, 28.67% and 26.28% Government revenue, 23.14% and 7.64% NOC share, 21.52% and 9.50% Contractor share of revenue per barrel was arrived at for Malaysia and Nigeria respectively, showing that the Malaysian PSC model yields more income to the country when compared to that of Nigeria without necessarily short-changing the contractors or the IOCs. Finally, the reasons behind these deficits were highlighted and recommendations made to improve the PSC and benefits for all parties to the contractual agreements.</p> Victor D. Ola, Azubuike H. Amadi, Raphael Okeke, Paul O. Okafor Copyright (c) 2021 Victor D. Ola, Azubuike H. Amadi, Raphael Okeke, Paul O. Okafor http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/678 Thu, 07 Jan 2021 09:30:42 -0500 Technology and Quality of Road Construction Projects in Kenya: A focus on Contractor’s Exposure to Technology in Machakos Sub-County https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/665 <p>Road traffic accidents are a menace to a developing country such as Kenya. The National Transport and Safety Authority website records over 57,171 cases of road traffic accidents NTSA [15]. Adopting the root cause analysis technique, it is crucial to determine and to solve the cause of a problem in order to have a permanent solution for it. This study focuses on road construction projects which are the actual onset of road traffic accidents. Occurrences of road traffic accidents are dependent on various factors ranging from the ideology of road construction projects to the operation of a sound or unsound vehicle on the road. Numerous studies have been done to research on the factors influencing quality of road construction projects but little has been done to determine how contractors related factors affect quality of road construction projects. Due to the research gap in the pool of knowledge, this study is aimed at identifying and analyzing how contractor’s exposure to technology influences the quality of road construction projects. The study area that was analyzed in this project was Machakos sub-county situated in the Lower Eastern region of Kenya. The study was guided by the objective: to establish influence of contractor’s exposure to technology on quality of road construction projects. This study applied Systems theory approach. A descriptive survey research design and a cross-sectional approach was used to collect quantitative data by use of close-ended questionnaires. The total target population was 223and a calculative formula adopted from Kothari [8] was used to acquire a sample size of 141 respondents. Stratified random sampling technique was applied on the sample size of 141 respondents to classify them into homogenous groups. Questionnaires were used as the main data collection instruments and were issued to the respondents. The gathered data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the data being presented descriptively using frequencies and percentages. Pearson’s product moment correlation procedure method was used to analyze the inferential statistic data and the results presented. In this study Spearman’s was used to measure the degree of association between the independent and dependent variables. On the influence of contractor’s exposure to technology, a composite mean of 3.74, standard deviation of 1.028 and a strong correlation value of 0.373 were achieved. The survey elicit conclusion was that quality of road construction projects in Machakos Sub-County was influenced by the independent variable.</p> Caroline Wachuka Muriithi, Mary Nyawira Mwenda Copyright (c) 2021 Caroline Wachuka Muriithi, Mary Nyawira Mwenda http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/665 Thu, 07 Jan 2021 09:37:06 -0500 Undergraduate Perceptions of Economic Problems in Mexico https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/679 <p>Without question, changes in U.S. policies have impacts beyond its own borders. This work reports an analysis of how university students perceive Mexico’s economic problems and their sources. The perceptions of younger Mexicans about economic problems are important, especially since young people represent 31% of Mexico’s population. A survey developed by the National Survey GEA-ISA was administered to 200 students in May 2019. The results of this survey show that students believe that their family economy today is vulnerable and will not improve next year, and that the economic outlook last year was better than today. Results also indicate that improvements in macroeconomic variables alone are not enough to generate a perceived improvement in the Mexican economy.</p> Russell McKenzie Copyright (c) 2021 Russell McKenzie http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/679 Sat, 09 Jan 2021 08:05:53 -0500 Influence of Stakeholders’ Participation in Monitoring and Evaluation Process on Implementation of HIV & AIDS Projects in Kenya: A Case of Dreams Project in Nairobi County https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/674 <p class="western" align="justify">The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&amp;E) process ensures project efficiency and effectiveness thus imperative to exhaustively study the influence of the Monitoring and Evaluation process on HIV/AIDS project(s) to ensure healthy lives and end diseases such as AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. This study aimed to examining the influence of Monitoring and Evaluation process on the implementation of HIV/AIDS projects in Kenya: the DREAMS project in Nairobi County. The following objective guided the study: to establish how stakeholders’ participation in Monitoring and Evaluation process influences implementation of HIV/AIDS projects in Kenya. The study was anchored on stakeholders’ theory. The study targeted 51 staff from Centre for the Study of Adolescents (CSA) and census was employed in determining sample size. A structured self-administered questionnaires and interviews were used as a primary data collection instrument. A descriptive analysis was employed on the data collected, and the results were presented using charts, graphs, and tables. The findings showed a composite mean of 3.606 and a standard deviation of 1.023 implying that stakeholders play a critical role in monitoring and evaluation process and thus, there is need to include all stakeholders in the monitoring and evaluation process. The study recommends that stakeholders be involved in all the project stages to ensure an effective Monitoring and Evaluation process. The findings are of significance to project managers, monitoring and evaluation officers, donors, policy makers, and researchers.</p> Nicholas Obudho Simon, Mary Nyawira Mwenda Copyright (c) 2021 Nicholas Obudho Simon, Mary Nyawira Mwenda http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/674 Sat, 09 Jan 2021 08:12:40 -0500 Influence of Project Implementation Strategies by Religious Organizations on Rural Development: A Case of Kitui Catholic Diocese, Kitui County, Kenya https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/673 <p>It has been documented that religious institutions have influenced the development of education systems, health facilities, infrastructure such as roads, water provision structures and even building designs. This study sought to find out the influence of project implementation strategies by religious organisations on rural development in Kenya. The study focused on the Catholic Diocese of Kitui, in Kitui County and sought to document how project implementation strategies by Catholic Diocese of Kitui influence rural development in Kitui County of Kenya. The target population for this study was drawn out of a homogenous setting of Kitui County, Kitui East Subcounty, Nzambani and Chuluni wards and covered a total of 6939 households. The study covered a sample population of 364 out of the determined target population of 6939 households. The analysis of the data collected was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study established that project implementation strategies by Catholic Diocese of Kitui influenced rural development in Kitui County as shown by a composite mean of 3.945. The Chi-Square test results of the association between project implementation strategies by religious organizations and rural development at Catholic Diocese of Kitui, Kitui County in Table 16, shows a Chi-Square value = 8.954, p = 0.003. The p-value is less than 0.05 and hence there is a statistically significant association between project implementation strategies and rural development at Catholic Diocese of Kitui. From the findings, the study found that if the independent variable, project implementation strategies, was held constant at zero, then the rural development in Kitui County will be 3.537. The study also found that a unit change in project implementation strategies changes would lead to a 0.843 unit change in rural development in Kitui County. The variable was significant since p-value=0.012&lt;0.05. The study concluded that project implementation strategies had a great influence on rural development in Kitui County. The study recommends that there is need for capacity development to identify resource availability and build capacities in communities and have them assisted to undertake church based projects. The study recommends that there is need for capacity development to identify resource availability and build capacities in communities and have them assisted to undertake church based projects. To create more ownership of the projects, the study recommends that there should be involvement of user representatives from the initiation to the implementation phases of the projects.</p> Antony Musyoki Mbandi, Mary Nyawira Mwenda Copyright (c) 2021 Antony Musyoki Mbandi, Mary Nyawira Mwenda http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/673 Mon, 11 Jan 2021 00:00:00 -0500 The Role of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) Explaining Recycling Behavior: An Emerging Market Perspective https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/123 <p>This study aims to understand the role of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in the context of recycling behavior. The research followed a positivistic, deductive and quantitative methodology. The study was conducted with a sample size of 467 using snowball sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess construct reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity in order to ensure reliability and effectiveness of the measurement model. The results show that overall model fit was acceptable and statistically significant. The study also reveals that, although TPB is considered to be widely acceptable model explaining most of the attitude–behavior relationship for many years, unable to predict the recycling intention adequately through various predictive variables such as attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in this particular case. However, recycling intention itself is statistically significant in predicting actual recycling behavior. This study has potentially added insights into the existing literature through experimenting an established model which can be useful developing an effective and comprehensive model in future. It can also be used in various industries to find ways to encourage recycling behavior through the lens of other potential factors such as external environment. As environment is also a priority agenda for the government and policymaker nowadays, this can assist them in making and implementing various effective and sustainable policies in future.</p> Md. Tamzidul Islam Copyright (c) 2020 Md. Motaher Hossain, Md. Tamzidul Islam, K.M. Zahidul Islam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/123 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 09:51:11 -0500 The Role of Bank Value in Cash Holdings of Banks in Ghana https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/677 <p>The current study explored the influence of bank value on cash holding among universal banks in Ghana. A panel data covering the period from 2009 to 2018 was used for the analysis. The Panel Least square regression model was utilized as the main technique for data analysis. The findings from this study revealed that, bank value has a significant positive influence on cash holdings of the universal banks in Ghana. Similarly, the study showed that, profitability, working capital and growth contribute positively to cash holdings of the banks. It is recommended that the universal banks should focus more on improving the bank value through value addition policies and measures. This will contribute to achieving a greater level of cash holdings. Keeping enough cash helps the banks to take advantage in any business opportunity that may arise at any time.</p> Samuel Asubonteng, Yusheng Kong Copyright (c) 2021 Samuel Asubonteng, Yusheng Kong http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/677 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 04:25:25 -0500 Online Shopping Behaviour among International Students from Belt & Road Countries in China https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/681 <p>The rapid transformation of e-platforms and the growth of e-commerce in China provide consumers with the most advanced channels and creative options for buying and selling through online podium. Online shopping is categorically going to be the world's future shopping mode. Besides, The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) of China aims to place the world on a new trajectory of higher growth and human development through the connectivity of infrastructure, increased trade, and investment. Cross-border online shopping has become one of the forthcoming prime business models through the implication of the Belt &amp; Road Initiative. By analyzing the representative group of consumers from Belt &amp; Road countries, this study is to explore possible guiding constraints about online shopping decisions that may assist to understand behavioral traits to cross-border online shopping. In the expansion of online shopping, consumers, particularly young people, and students play the most important role. It is, therefore, imperative for companies to investigate and consider the factors that affect the decision of students and young people to get online shopping. This paper has attempted to explore various factors that will affect the online shopping decision of consumers particularly from Belt &amp; Road countries. During this analysis, a qualitative study approach was adopted and a sample of 105 higher education students from the Belt &amp; Road Initiative (BRI) countries studying at Capital Normal University was drawn up. The study will ascertain the ‘Online Shopping Behaviors’ of typical consumers from BRI (Belt &amp; Road) countries to explore a wider direction for cross-border online shopping decisions. It is discovered that online shopping makes life easier, and it is not so far that online shopping can infinitely overtake conventional physical shopping in the whole world.</p> Md Shohidul Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Md Shohidul Islam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/681 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 04:37:04 -0500 Enterprise Risk Management to Minimizing Financial Distress Condition Using Analytical Hierarchy Process Method in PT. XYZ https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/668 <p>PT. XYZ as one of telecommunications infrastructure providers that suffered losses gave a strong signal that the company was experiencing financial distress. Altman z-score is used to know the condition of the company. The result of Altman z-score analysis company has to further analyze the cause of financial distress. To prevent the company from bankruptcy risk, we cannot only focus on the financial aspect but also from various aspect. Enterprise risk management is used as a tool to identify what risks that could lead companies to experience financial distress and which risk should be mitigated. Risk assessment in this study using the analytic hierarchy process to check and reduce the expert inconsistency. After conducting risk management process, monitoring and review as the final step and implementation of this study. The result from this study is most of the risk are classified into high and medium risk can be mitigate by reduce or transfer the risk depend on the most suitable risk treatment. There are risks that classified as low risk, environment risk and promotion risk.</p> Ervie Nur Afifa Mukhlis, Sylviana Maya Damayanti Copyright (c) 2021 Ervie Nur Afifa Mukhlis, Sylviana Maya Damayanti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/668 Wed, 13 Jan 2021 04:42:32 -0500 Analysis of the Effect of Attitude toward Environment, Perceived Control Behavior and Ecological Packaging on Green Purchase Intention on Packaging Drinking Water (AMDK) Brand Cleo Eco Shape https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/689 <p>This study examines the impact of Attitude toward Environment, Perceive Control Behavior and Ecological Packaging on green purchase intention of Cleo Eco Shape Bottled Drinking Water (AMDK). The population used is all Indonesian citizens who have not bought Cleo Ecoshape brand bottled water products. The sample used was 120 respondents. PLS is used to analyze research data. The results of this study indicate Attitude toward Environment, Perceive Control Behavior and Ecological Packaging have a positive and significant effect on Purchase Intention.</p> Ahmadian Hafiz, Dudi Permana Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmadian Hafiz, Dudi Permana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/689 Mon, 18 Jan 2021 04:34:01 -0500 Propose Business Strategy for Coffee Shop in Indonesia (XYZ Company) https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/687 <p>Indonesia is one of the most potential markets for entrepreneurs who want to enter the coffee shop industry. The phenomenon of coffee as one of the local wisdoms in Indonesia has encouraged XYZ to have a vision of promoting the uniqueness of Indonesian coffee. However, XYZ ran into various hurdles to keep his business. XYZ’s performance from early 2018 to early 2020 experienced fluctuating conditions and in early 2020 experienced a drastic decline due to the effects of COVID-19. Then in mid-2020, the company started to improve its strategy in dealing with the impact of the pandemic. Currently, XYZ has one store in Tebet, South Jakarta.</p> <p>This study aims to assist the XYZ team in improving sales performance, especially in marketing strategies. In identifying external problems, this study uses general environmental analysis, industrial environmental analysis and competitor analysis. In identifying internal problems, this study uses resource analysis, value chain analysis, marketing mix analysis and competitor exploration. Furthermore, this study uses a qualitative approach that collects data from interviews with 15 customers as respondents. The respondents who were interviewed had the aim of capturing customer values and XYZ's ability to fulfill customer values. Interviews were also conducted due to changes in conditions caused by the pandemic which are likely to have an impact on customer value.</p> <p>Based on the analysis and determination of the direction of corporate strategy, this study finds that the company's situation is at the stage of growth and diversification. At this stage, XYZ needs to prioritize the target market according to its potential. In addition, this study also suggests XYZ to implement a diversification strategy in marketing activities. Finally, this study also uses the TOWS matrix as the main tool for developing marketing activities. In conclusion, this study proposes a strategy map, schedule, activity time and cost estimation as an implementation plan.</p> Aditia Pramagista, Harimukti Wandebori Copyright (c) 2021 Aditia Pramagista, Harimukti Wandebori http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/687 Wed, 20 Jan 2021 04:47:19 -0500 Foreign Direct Investment in the United Arab Emirates: A Study on the Main Contributors https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/694 <p>Foreign Direct Investment support the development of the host countries and provides opportunities for the Multinational Corporations to geographically diversify their operations into greener pastures and reap better benefits. This study focuses on a few of the most relevant factors that attract FDI into the UAE. It is observed that the inflow of FDI into the UAE is on the increase year-on-year during the last five years. The relevant factors that make the UAE FDI-attractive are the political stability, geocentric location, well-developed infrastructure, stable currency, well developed financial system, the global crowd-pulling event the Expo 2020, and the proactive and investor-friendly policies of the government.</p> Mariam Abdalla Alshamlan, Vania Maria Fernandez, Manuel Fernandez Copyright (c) 2021 Mariam Abdalla Alshamlan, Vania Maria Fernandez, Manuel Fernandez http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/694 Fri, 22 Jan 2021 14:37:57 -0500